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1

What is a probability distribution?

A list of all the possible outcomes together with their probabilities

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2

What are the conditions for BD?

There’s fixed number of trials

Each trial has 2 outcomes

All the trials are independent of each other

Probabilities are fixed

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3

What do p&q stand for in BD?

p-probability of success

q-probability of failure

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4

How to find probabilities in BD

Identify the 2 outcomes and find their probabilities

Expand (p+q)^n, leaving p and q as letters

Find the terms that has p to the power of x successes

Substitute values of p and q, then calculate

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5

How to show BD

B(n,p)

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6

What’s the mean of BD?

np (number of trials*probability of success)

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7

Calculator shortcut for BD

Find the coefficient by using nCr (n is trials and r is successes)

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8

How to show ND

N(μ,σ^2)

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9

What does μ and σ^2 stand for in ND?

μ-mean

σ^2- variance

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10

What does ND look like?

Smooth bell shaped curve

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11

What are the conditions for ND

the data is continuous

the distribution is symmetrical

the mode, median, and mean are about the same

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12

What kind of data works for ND?

Heights, weights, time

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13

What is ND not suitable for?

Skewed data

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14

What percentage of the data lies within 1sd of the mean?

68%

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15

What percentage of the data lies between 2sd of the mean?

95%

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16

What percentage of the data lies within 3sd of the mean?

99.8%

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17

What are standardised scores used for?

Comparing how far above or below average individual values are

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18

How to calculate standardised score

(score-mean)/standard deviation

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19

How to interpret standardised score

positive-score>mean

negative-score<mean

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20

What is quality assurance?

Checking samples to make sure products are of good quality

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21

What is a control chart?

Time series chart used for quality assurance

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22

What are the 5 lines on a control chart for?

middle line-target value

inner two lines-upper and lower warning limits

outer two lines-upper and lower action limits

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23

What are the warning limits on a control chart?

2sd above/below target value

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24

What do you do if a sample is outside the warning limits?

Take another sample to see if there is a problem, and if so production is stopped

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25

What are the action limits on a control chart?

3sd above/below target value

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26

What do you do is a sample is outside action limits?

Stop production immediately

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