Unit 5 Chapter 6: Introduction to Chemical Bonding

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Diatomic molecules

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Diatomic molecules

H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I

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ionic bond

results from the electrical attraction between cations & anions EN difference >1.7

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polar-covalent bond

EN difference 0.3-1.69

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single bond

one pair of electrons shared

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double bond

two pairs of electrons shared

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triple bond

three pairs of electrons shared

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polar

electrons shared unequally

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nonpolar

electrons shared equally

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ionic bond rule

metal + nonmetal

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covalent bond rule

nonmetal + nonmetal/metalloid

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metallic bond rule

metal + metal

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non-polar covalent bond

EN difference 0-0.3

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shared, transferred

electrons are ______ in covalent bonding and ______ in ionic bonding

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bond length

the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy

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bond energy

the energy required to break a bond between two covalently bonded atoms

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inverse

bond length and bond energy have a(n) _______ proportion

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molecule

the smallest part of a covalently bonded substance with the properties of that substance

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resonance

bonding in molecules or ions in which more than one correct Lewis structure can be drawn is known as ______

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valence electrons

electrons involved in the formation of any bond

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Chemical formula

a shorthand representation of the composition of a substance using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts which indicates the type of elements and ratio of atoms

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melting point of an ionic compound

generally very high compared to covalent substances

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metal atoms are strongly bonded by a mutually held sea of electrons

electrons are desocialized and free to move around all atoms of the metal

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intramolecular forces

bonds between atoms

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intermolecular forces

bonds between molecules

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polyatomic ions

covalently bonded atoms with an overall charge

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VSEPR; valence shell electron pair repulsion

a theory that states that bonded atoms and unshared electron pairs orient themselves as far apart from each other as possible

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hydrogen

element that defies the octect rule, only needing two electrons

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metals properties

-shiny -good conductors of electricity -malleable -ductile

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cations

positively charged ions

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anions

negatively charged ions

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identical covalent bonds

makes a nonpolar covalent bond

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lone pairs

electrons not involved in a chemical bond

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