AP Psych Topics

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dispositional attribution

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104 Terms

1

dispositional attribution

attributing a behavior to DISPOSITION or internal factors

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2

situational attribution

attributing a behavior to a situation

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3

self-serving bias

believing that actions a

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4

fundamental attribution error

people usually interpret other’s failures as dispositional

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5

self-fulfilling prophecy

when attributions impact behavior outcome. in educatio, called the rosenthal effect

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6

sensorimotor stage

piaget stage 1 - acting on present objects, developing object permanence

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7

preoperational stage

piaget stage 2 - symbolic thought (using schemas that aren’t present), can’t do mental operations yet

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8

concrete operational stage

piaget stage 3 - can access schemas, perform mental operations, but limited by their personal experiences

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9

formal operational stage

piaget stage 4 - can think theoretically

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10

inferential statistics

confidence of claiming that results aren’t due to chance

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11

null hypothesis

hypothesis that a treatment has no effect

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12

type 1 error

rejecting the null, but it’s really true

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13

type 2 error

accept the null, but it’s really false

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14

barbiturates (ex: seconal, nebutal)

depresses CNS, inhibits arousal centers, decreases anxiety, very addictive, when mixed w/ other substances can be deadly

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15

tranquilizers (ex: xanax, valium, librium)

depresses CNS, inhibits arousal centers, reduces anxiety w/o inducing sleep

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16

amphetamines

stimulates CNS, increases temp and HR, increases dopamine/norepinephrine, may be addictive

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17

norepinephrine

arousal, attention

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18

cocaine

stimulates CNS, increases temp and HR, increases dopamine/norepinephrine, may be addictive, increased abilities

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19

primary drives

unlearned - hunger, thirst, sleep

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20

secondary drives

learned - money, affection

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21

counterconditioning

response to a stimulus is replaced by something else

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22

aversion therapy

pair an aversive stimulus with a behavior to decrease behavior

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23

systematic desensitization

replacing bad response with better response

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24

implosion

imagining the disruptive stimulus

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25

behavior contracting

therapist-client contract for rewards/behaviors

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26

internal validity

extent to which results aren’t to chance

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27

eclectic psychology

borrowing things from different schools of psychology

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28

adrenocorticotropic hormone

stressful situations (cortico=cortisol)

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29

when do children begin walking by?

14/15 months

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30

when do children begin sitting/crawling by?

7 months

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31

when do children run for the first time?

21 months

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32

how long does short term memory last?

a few seconds to a minute

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33

elaborative rehearsal

transferring something into LTM meaningfully

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34

dual-coding hypothesis

a word and picture together are easier to remember

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35

method of loci

recalling info by location

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36

groupthink

members in a group are driven to make a decision, they lose touch of repercussions - more likely when groups are isolated, lack diversity, a dictatorship, or high pressure, by Irving janis

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37

mindguard

a person in a group who criticizes/ostracizes outliers

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38

ceiling effect

when the dependent variable “maxes out”

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39

antisocial personality disorder

person has disregard for others

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40

primary reinforcer

unlearned/natural reinforcer

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41

secondary reinforcer

learned reinforcer

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42

symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome

intellectual disability, low birth weight, poor social skills, poor coordination

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43

sclera

protects/forms substance of the eye

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44

cornea

protects eye, allows light to bend, allows focus

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45

aqueous humor

maintains pressure/nourishment in eye

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46

iris

behind cornea, allows light to enter the eye

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47

lens

allows focus

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48

vitreous humor

supports shape of eye

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49

retina

has photoreceptors (rods/cones)

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50

optical nerve

ganglion axon, where your blind spot is

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51

pinna

outer part of ear

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52

ossicles

bones that amplify sound

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53

semicircular canals

has fluid/balance

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54

cilia

hair on organ of corti

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55

place theory

place of cilia affects pitch of sound we hear

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56

sensorineural hearing loss

damage to cilia/auditory nerve

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57

conductive hearing loss

damage to ossicles/middle ear

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58

medulla oblongata

hindbrain - breathing, blood pressure, reflexes

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59

pons

hindbrain - sleep cycle, communication b/w forebrain and hindbrain, bladder

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60

cerebellum

hindbrain - “little brain” —> regulates posture, balance, muscle tone, implicit memories/associations

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reticular formation

hindbrain - attention/arousal, conciousness, sleep cycle

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62

tectum

roof of midbrain

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63

tegmentum

floor/relay station of midbrain

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64

occipital lobe

visual processing lobe

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65

visual cortex

cortex for processing images

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66

temporal lobe

lobe for auditory processing

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67

primary auditory cortex

cortex that governs hearing

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68

wernicke’s area

audial processing

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69

parietal lobe

lobe for sensory processing

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70

somatosensory cortex

cortex governing skin/sensory info

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71

frontal lobe

lobe for motor, judgement, and problem solving

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72

broca’s area

speech production/comprehension

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73

prefrontal cortex

executive functions to control cognition

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74

primary motor cortex

controls movements

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75

limbic system

emotional regulation

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76

hippocampus

long term memory, declarative memory, helps form new memories

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77

amygdala

fear, memory consolidation, stress

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78

hypothalamus

regulates autonomic nervous system and hormones, sleep cycles, respiration, and eating

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79

babinski reflex

splaying toes in response to strokes on the soles of feet

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80

moro reflex

splaying limbs resulting from loss of support

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81

what were the howard gardner intelligences?

linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial-visual, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist

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82

lazarus model of stress

emphasizes cognitive appraisal

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83

general adaptation syndrome - hans selye

alarm —> resistance —> exhausted

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84

negative triad

depression about yourself, your world, your future

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85

brainwaves during nrem1

alpha

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86

brainwaves during nrem2

theta

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87

brainwaves during nrem3

delta

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88

brainwaves during rem

beta

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89

personality inventory

a self-assessment method, often a standardized questionnaire, that reveals insights into an individual's character

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90

aerial perspective

distant objects are paler, less detailed, and usually bluer than near objects

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91

stereopsis

3d image

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92

retinal convergence

when both eyes move inward in order to focus on a particular point or object

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93

monocular cues

2d

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94

binocular cues

3d

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95

endorphins

pain relievers

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96

attachment anxiety

some difficulty/inhibition in attachment

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97

reactive attachment disorder

inability to attach to others

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98

acetylcholine

faster heart contractions, assoc w/ nicotine

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99

psychological reactance

the way in which a person thinks or behaves when they perceive a threat to their freedom

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100

yerkes-dodson law

moderate difficulty/arousal is always best

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