Human Diseases midterm

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Homeostasis

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Biology

203 Terms

1

Homeostasis

The constant and steady maintenance of internal conditions.

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2

Disease

A state of functional disequilibrium. A change in function or structure that is considered to be abnormal.

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3

Pathology

The study of disease.

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4

Pathophysiology

The study of the physiological processes leading up to disease.

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5

Signs

Objective evidence of disease observed on physical examinations. (Things that can be observed by someone else.)

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6

Examples of Signs

Abnormal pulse, respiratory rate, fever, sweating, etc seen by medical professional

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7

Symptoms

Subjective indications of disease reported by the patient. (Things that someone else cannot observe, but the patient can feel.)

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8

Examples of Symptoms

Pain, dizziness, itching, etc.

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9

Syndrome

Certain sets of signs and symptoms occur in some diseases. (combo of signs and symptoms)

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10

Examples of Syndromes

Down's Syndrome, malabsorption syndrome, etc.

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11

Diagnosis

The use of scientific or clinical methods to determine the nature of a disease.

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12

Prognosis

The predicted course and outcome of the disease.

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13

Chronic

Slower onset, long duration.

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14

Terminal

Any disease that will end in death.

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15

Remission

A period in which the disease's signs and symptoms subside.

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16

Exacerbation

When a disease recurs in all its severity.

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17

Relapse

When a disease returns weeks or months after apparent cessation.

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18

Complication

A disease or other abnormal state that develops in a person already inflicted with a disease.

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19

Sequela

The aftermath of a particular disease.

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20

Mortality

The measure of the number of deaths attributed to a given population over a certain period of time.

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21

Morbidity

The measure of the disability and extent of illness caused by a disease.

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22

Prevalence

The number of cases a disease occurring at a given time in a specified population.

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23

Incidence

The number of new cases of a disease at a given time in a specified population.

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24

Epidemiology

The study of occupancy, transmission, distribution, and control of disease.

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25

Etiology

The cause of the disease.

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26

Pathogenesis

The source or cause if a disease and its development.

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27

Idiopathic

Cause of disease unknown.

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28

Lesion

A damaged gene or enzyme, abnormal cells tissues, or organs.

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29

Risk Factors

Something that increases the chance of developing a particular disease.

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30

Treatment

Procedures for the cure or reduction of symptoms of disease.

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31

palliative or symptomatic

treats just the symptoms.

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32

curative

treats the causing agent

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33

Immunity

The ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, and abnormal somatic cells.

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34

Nonspecific Immunity defenses

Physical and chemical barriers, phagocytosis, Natural Killer Cells, Fever, Interferon, inflammation.

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35

The Lymphatic System

A network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid organs that are used to fight off infections.

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36

Lymphocytes

A type white blood cells produced from the Lymph Nodes.

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37

Antigen

A foreign element that triggers the immune response.

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38

Humoral Immunity

provides a defense against extracellular antigens such as bacterial toxins and cells and involves production of antibody molecules in response to antigens

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39

Cell-mediated Immunity

provides a defense against viruses, abnormal cells, and other intracellular pathogens (responsible for rejecting tissue grafts and organ transplants)

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40

Leokocytes

engulf and digest bacteria and other materials

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41

Natural killer cells

recognizes and destroys abnormal cell membranes

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42

complement

group of plasma proteins that assist in destruction of foreign cells

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43

inflammation

the body's attempt to restore and maintain homeostasis after injury ; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat

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44

Histamines and Kinins

cause of cardinal signs and symptoms of inflammation

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45

Lupus

Chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that can affect various parts of the body. Affects women more between ages of 20-40

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46

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

most common lupus; 70% of cases

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47

Scleroderma

A disease characterized by the formation of scar tissue in connective tissues. Mostly affects women more in their 40s

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48

immunoglobulins

antibody; 5 types

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49

shock

blood pressure goes down, heart rate goes up

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50

Sjögren's Syndrome

Chronic, slowly progressive autoimmune disease that affects the exocrine (moisture-producing) glands of the body.

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51

Primary Sjögren's

___ Sjögren's is when the disease occurs by itself

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52

Secondary Sjögren's

___ Sjögren's is accompanied by diseases such as JRA or lupus.

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53

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

A condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that destroys an individual's immune system. It is now considered a pandemic, spreading through contact with infected bodily fluids (used needles, sexual contact).

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54

Active Immunity

Received via specific vaccination.

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55

Autoimmunity

When an individual develops antibodies called autoantibodies that attack their own tissues or self-antigens.

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56

Passive Immunity

A person is injected with pre-formed antibodies.

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57

Cortisol

A hormone released when an individual is under stress. This decreases the production of antibodies.

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58

Pathogen/ Infectious Agent

A disease-causing organism.

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59

Contagious/ Communicable

A disease transmitted by human contact.

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60

Endemic

When a disease occurs at low levels in a population.

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61

Epidemic

A disease that occurs in unusually large numbers over a specific area.

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62

Pandemic

An epidemic that has spread to several large areas worldwide.

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63

Outbreak

When a disease suddenly occurs in a limited area and then subsides.

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64

Notifiable Diseases

Diseases that are under constant surveillance in the United States.

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65

Reservoir

The source of an infectious agent.

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66

Carriers

Those who harbor an infectious disease but show no symptoms.

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67

Horizontal Transmission

Diseases spread from human to human contact.

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68

Vertical Transmission

Diseases transmitted from a mother to a fetus.

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69

IgE

antibodies that are well known for their role in mediating allergic reactions

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70

IgG/IgM

destructive cells

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71

Delayed hypersensitivity

same mechanism as cell mediated immunity

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72

Bacteria

A microscopic, single-called organism.

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73

Protozoa

Single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms.

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74

Fungi

Single-celled or multicelled organisms with cell walls that contain a special polysaccharide called Chitin.

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75

Helminths

Is the most common worm infection in the United States. Worms infestation site is the anus/rectum

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76

Ascariasis

A very common worm infection that causes strong itching sensation around the anus. Infections are usually asymptomatic.

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77

Hookworms

Worms that hook onto skin and travel to the small intestine. Leading cause of anemia and protein malnutrition.

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78

Nosocomial Infections

Hospital-acquired infections, infections contracted in a healthcare facility.

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79

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

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80

Antibiotics

Various drugs used to treat diseases caused by bacteria.

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81

Emerging infectious diseases

Outbreaks of previously unknown or known diseases whose incidence has significantly increased in the past two decades.

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82

Re-emerging infectious diseases

Known diseases that have reappeared after a significant decline in incidence.

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83

NIAID

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease.

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84

WHO

World Health Organization.

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85

Tumor

Often a result of cancer, ______ are a lump of cells that can be harmful.

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86

Neoplasm

New growth of a tumor.

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87

Benign

Non-cancerous and localized.

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88

Blood borne pathogens

microorganisms that are transmitted through blood

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89

Mutation

A change in the biochemistry of a gene.

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90

Oncogene

A gene that when mutated can result in the conversion of normal cells to cancer cells.

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91

Etiology of cancer

Cancer can often be caused by exposure to carcinogens, environmental factors, or genetics.

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92

Asbestos

Industrial chemicals (an occupational risk) that increase the risk of mesothelioma, lung, and other cancers.

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93

prophylaxis

to prevent/the prevention of disease

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94

Lung Cancer

The most common malignant disease worldwide, often caused by overuse of tobacco.

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95

Histology

Cell structure abnormalities.

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96

Gram +

only have a cell wall; colors purple

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97

Gram -

has both cell membrane and cell wall; colors pink

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98

measles

an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash.

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99

mumps

an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands. Can Affect testicles uterus (fertility). No cure but MMR vaccine for prevention

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100

rubella

"german measles" (3 day measles). Highly contagious and there are few or no symptoms other than a rash. MMR vaccine for prevention

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