Chapter 13- World War 2

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World War 2 dates

September 1, 1939-September 2, 1945

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General Facts about WW2

Largest and deadliest war, fought on land, sea, and air, fought mostly on 3 continents- Europe, Africa, Asia

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"Good War"

A war between good and evil to save our freedoms, way of life

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Nationalism

extreme pride in one's country over individual rights

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Imperialism

aggressive land take over

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Militarism

Aggressive build up of a military that gains control of the government

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Fascism

political philosophy that exalts nation above the individual, stands for an autocratic government headed by a dictator, severe economic and social control and forcible suppression of any opposition

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Autocratic government

leader handles laws, decisions, and everything

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Treaty of Versailles

signed at the end of world war 1

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Who was required to take blame in WW2

Germany

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Four main terms of the treaty of Versailles

  1. War Guilt Cause- Germany should accept all blame for starting WW1

  2. Reparations- Germany had to pay for damage caused by the war

  3. Disarmament- Germany was allowed to have a small army, six naval ships, no tanks, no air force, no submarines, Rhineland was de-militarized

  4. Territorial causes- land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries, union with Austria was forbidden

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Causes of WW2

  1. Treaty of Versailles

  2. Hitler's aggressive actions

  3. Failure of Appeasement

  4. Failure of League of Nations

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How did Germany feel about the Treaty

very unhappy, wanted revenge, humiliated, angry, some thought it was too harsh

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Hitler's political ideas in his book Mein Kampf

Devotion to state above self Goal to unite Germans of Europe in a great empire Modeled after Ancient Rome Believe in racial superiority believed Jews threatened the purity of Aryan race and said no intermarriage Lebensraum

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Mein Kampf

Hitler's book written in jail meaning "my struggles"

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what did Hitler say he would do to the treaty

Rip it up, overturn it

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Hitler's background

Born in Austria, mother was abused by father, came to Germany to fight in WW1, was considered patriotic and courageous for his commitment, had a talent for public speaking

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Hitler's rise to power

Political and economic instability from WW1 fueled the rise of power New political party- National Socialist Party of German Workers pro NAZI Party In 1923 he organized an effort to seize power of Germany, Supposed to serve 5 years, but only served 9 months

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President Von Hindenburg

president of Germany who appointed Hitler as chancellor, when he died Hitler made himself dictator for life

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Night of the Long Knives

purge of the people who did not agree with Hitler

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What did Hitler secretly began to do after becoming Chancellor

He secretly began building up the military, ships, weapons, and air force

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March of 1936 Hitler ordered German troops where

Rhineland along the Rhine river

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Hitler made a tripartite alliance with what two others country

Italy at first, then Japan joined to make the pact of steel

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Leader of Italy

Benito Mussolini

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Leader of Japan

Hideki Tojo

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Mach of 1938 German troops marched where to get their land back

Marched to Austria, very peaceful no shots where fired, most people agreed and were happy with the takeover

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Anschluss

union with Germany

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What was the German speaking part of Czechoslovakia

Sudetenland

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Annex

to join/add

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Aggressive move Hitler made in March of 1939

Invaded the rest of Czech

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Appeasement

sitting down and negotiating with someone to give in

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Neville Chamberlain

Prime minister of Great Britain

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What did Neville Chamberlain think about the Treaty of Versailles

Treated Germany badly, thought giving into Hitler would prevent war

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Who signed the Munich agreement

Leaders of Germany, Britain, France, and Italy

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What did the Munich agreement say

Sudetenland would be given to Germany and no further claims could be made, no agression

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Munich agreement was viewed was viewed as what to other countries

A triumph example of securing peace, success

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Did Hitler keep his word to the Munich Agreement

No, he invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia

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Was Chamberlain's policy of appeasement a success or a failure

A failure, because everyone knew that Hitler had ignored the Treaty of Versailles, and kept invading more places

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Is it wise to negotiate with a dictator

No, because a dictator does what they want and will do anything to get it. They do not care how others feel.

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What was the League of Nations

An international organization set up in 1919 to help keep world peace

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Why did the league of nations fail

-Not all countries joined -Had No Power: main weapon was to ask member countries to stop trading with an aggressive country -Had no Army: Soldiers were to be supplied by member countries, but no one wanted to supply -Unable to Act quickly: only met 4 times a year, so if a crisis popped up no one could help

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Characteristics of a Totalitarian Dictator

-Promises to return country to greatness -Dynamic speaking styles that enabled them to achieve influence over people -Stressed glory of the state over concerns of people -Willing to use violence to gain power -power and authority was to be unchallenged -allowed no elections or political parties -Believes the Nation becomes great through expanding Nation and claiming territory -Controlled Newspapers, schools, businesses -total control over daily life

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Axis powers

Germany Japan Italy

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Allied Powers

U.S.A Great Britain France Soviet Union China Canada

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Neutral Countries

Italy Switzerland Sweden Portugal Spain Turkey Ireland

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German-Soviet non-aggression pact

Hitler won Joseph Stalin's agreement to stay out of Germany's way as it continues to expand In return Hitler promised not to attack the Soviet Union and give Poland

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Immediate cause of WW1

The German invasion of Poland causing France and Britain to declare war

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Blitzkrieg

"lightening war" - swift surprise attacks combining infantry, tanks, and aircraft to quickly overwhelm the enemy

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Punzers

German Tanks

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The Phony War

The Winter of 1939-40, a long period of time where there was an apparent quiet through the winter which American press names the Phony War Hitler was making plans

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Hitler's purpose of taking Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg

to improve his access to the Atlantic Ocean

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Why did France have a false sense of security

France felt secure but they should not have, they thought Germany was going to enter through the Maginot line but they surprise France and do not

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Ardennes Forest

A forest that was rugged along the Northern border of Belgium and France

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Maginot Line

A whole string of defended bunkers and forts along the borders of Germany and France

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Where did Germany come through to invade France in 1940

Ardennes Forest

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Hitler ordered the advance of troops to stop Why

He wanted soldiers out of bombing range of his Luftwaffe

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Dunkirk

a sea port where the troops were positioned to prepare for battle and develop a evacuation plan

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Operation Dynamo

code name for evacuation of allied troops from Dunkirk

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What ships were used to ferry the thousands of soldiers across the English channel since Britain did not have enough

British citizens used their own fishing boats, yachts, paddle steamers, and other sea worthy boats

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After evacuation at Dunkirk where did Germany go next

Germany invaded France, Paris fell days later, France surrendered

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Winston Churchill

Prime minister of Great Britain starting in May of 1940, most famous for helping save Britain

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English Channel

Narrow 23 mile stretch of water between Great Britain and France

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"Someone Wake the Sleeping Giant" who and what does it mean

the sleeping giant was the United States and they wanted to ask us for help but we were not getting involved

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Operation Sea Lion

Hitler's plan code name was an airborne assault to take out the Royal Air Force, landing on the South Coast of Britain

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RAF

Royal Air Force- British air force

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Luftwaffe

German Air Force

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British Advantage

Use of radar to detect planes coming in Home Turf so they could go down and refuel then go back up

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German Advantage

A lot more more planes

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What was the Blitz

Hitler bombed major cities and civilians in order to break the rescue of British 76 days of continuous bombing After 3 months Hitler was forced to call it off

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London Tube

Unground subway system

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Isolationism

the desire to avoid involvement in foreign wars

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Who were Isolationists

Republicans and Democrats Most college students Most of Congress President Hoover Father Coughlin Most Americans Heroes like aviator Charles Lindberg

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Who was not an Isolationists

FDR

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Reasons for American Isolationism

WW1 had been costly in lives, FEARFUL of another war People were burdened by the Great Depression, FOCUSED on economic depression This was not our war, people felt it was a FOREIGN WAR not ours to handle

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Neutral

not aid to one side or another

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Neutrality Acts

Set up to prevent us from going to war

  1. banned sale of arms, ammunition, or any tools of war to warring nations

  2. Prohibited loaning money to warring countries

  3. Made it illegal to transport weapons or passengers to warring nations aboard American ships

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Cash and Carry

Countries at war could purchase American goods as long as they paid cash and picked them up at American ports

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Destroyers for Bases

Agreement between the U.S and U.K. made on Sept. 2, 1940, where we gave 50 old destroyer ships to the British Navy in exchange for building Military bases on British Islands

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Lend Lease (arsenal of democracy)

FDR made a speech to congress declaring his goal of making the U.S a arsenal of democracy FDR wanted the U.S to provide weapons to our allies so democracy could be saved in Europe

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Arsenal

A place where weapons are stored

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Why did FDR want to provide weapons to Allied countries and not remain isolationist

if the other countries lost their democracy so would the U.S

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Atlantic Charter

Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly on a ship off the coast of New Foundland, Canada Drafted a Charter stating the goals and aims of the allies during WW2 in opposing Hitler Stating that U.S and Great Britain sought no territory, citizens of every country should be given freedom, right of self determination, should be restored where it was taken away, trade barriers loweredCharter mandated freedom of the seas, renounced the use of force to settle international disputes and called post war disarmament

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What event led to the involvement of the U.S in WW2

The bombing of Pearl Harbor

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Sunday December 7, 1941

Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

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