BIO 106: EXAM 3

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DNA

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DNA

nucleic acid composed of nucleotides

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what are the parts of nucleotides

sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base

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what kind of sugar is in a DNA nucleotide?

deoxyribose

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What are the nitrogen base groups made of?

two purines and two pyrimidines

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DNA purines

adenine and guanine

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DNA pyrimidines

cytosine and thymine

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What kind of pyrimidine can only be found in DNA?

thymine

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Is DNA double or single stranded?

double

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do DNA strands run in opposite or the same direction?

opposites

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DNA strands are _____ to each other; not exactly alike.

complimentary

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DNA A = _____

T

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DNA T = ____

A

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DNA C = _____

G

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DNA G = _____

C

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DNA strands are held together by _____ bonds.

hydrogen

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What makes up the backbone of DNA strands?

sugar/phosphate group

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<p>Identify the nucleotide parts.</p>
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<p>Identify the nucleotide parts.</p>

Identify the nucleotide parts.

B: phosphate A: Sugar C: nitrogen base

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Where is DNA located?

in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

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____ is the storage of genetic info.

DNA

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Replication

DNA makes an exact copy of itself before new cells are made

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T/F: DNA can replicate

true

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T/F: DNA cannot mutate

false

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Mutation:

a change in the original lineup or order of DNA

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T/F: DNA does not undergo transformation

false

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Transformation:

the introduction of new DNA into a bacteria cell

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transfection:

introduction of new DNA in eukaryotic cells

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Who discovered DNA transformation, but he did not know it was DNA that was transforming?

Griffith

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Who concluded that DNA is the transforming principle in Griffith's experiments?

Avery and McCarthy

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Who concluded that DNA, not protein, is responsible for storing genetic info?

Hershey and Chase

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Who discovered DNA's complimentary pattern?

Chargaff

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Who discovered that DNA is in the shape of a double helix?

Watson and Crick

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Who discovered the semi-conservative replication of DNA?

Stahl

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Semi-conservative replication of DNA:

each DNA double helix is composed of an old strand and new strand

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DNA replication:

makes an exact copy of itself

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When does DNA replication occur?

before cellular reproduction

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Where does DNA replication occur?

inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

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how many phases can DNA replication go through?

3

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put the phases of DNA replication in order.

  1. DNA helicase

  2. DNA polymerase

  3. DNA ligase

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DNA helicase

unravels DNA in double helix

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DNA polymerase

adds free complementary nucleotides to each DNA

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DNA ligase

seals DNA fragments on one DNA strand

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RNA:

nucleic acid that is composed of nucleotides

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What are the parts of RNA

sugar phosphate group nitrogen base

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What kind of sugar does RNA have?

ribose

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RNA purines

adenine and guanine

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RNA pyrimidines

cytosine and uracil

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What kind of pyrimidine can only be found in RNA?

uracil

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RNA A = ____

U

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RNA G = ____

C

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RNA C = _____

G

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RNA U = ____

A

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transcription

DNA makes RNA

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Translation

RNA makes proteins

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every gene will have ____ alleles- Mendel

2

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law of segregation:

alleles will separate during meiosis

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law of independent assortment:

allele separation is completely random

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One allele is _____ (mask/hides the expression of another allele), and one allele is _______ ( masked/hidden in the presence of another allele).

dominant recessive

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individuals are ________ (having same alleles for a gene) or ______ (having different alleles for a gene)

homozygous heterozygous

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multiple alleles

many genes will have this because of mutations

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co-dominance

2 dominant alleles being expressed equally

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what is an example co dominance?

ABO blood type

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incomplete dominance

dominant allele does not completely hide the recessive allele

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What is an example of incomplete dominance?

pink flowers

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polygenetic inheritance

many genes control one physical characteristics

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What is an example of polygenetic inheritance?

eye color

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pleiotropy

one piece of DNA controlling many physical characteristics

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Dominant

capital; always shows up

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recessive

lowercase; only shows up by itself

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homozygous

use same letters; same uppercase or lowercase

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heterozygous

uses different letters; uppercase first and lowercase after

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