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Created in 2022 for M. Sumler's UMKC dual credit Elementary Statistics course.

1

Census

A survey conducted by including every element of the population.

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2

Cluster

A subgroup (usually geographical) of the population that is representative of the population.

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3

Cluster sampling

A sampling technique in which the population is divided into clusters and a sample is chosen from one or a few clusters.

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4

Continuous variable

A (quantitative) variable that can assume any numerical value over a certain interval or intervals.

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5

Control group

The group on which no condition is imposed.

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6

Convenience sample

A sample that includes the most accessible members of the population.

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7

Cross-section data

Data collected on different elements at the same point in time or for the same period of time.

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8

Data or data set

Collection of observations or measurements on a variable.

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9

Descriptive statistics

Collection of methods for organizing displaying and describing data using tables, graphs, and summary measures.

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10

Designed experiment

A study in which the experimenter controls the assignment of elements to different treatment groups.

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11

Discrete variable

A (quantitative) variable whose values are countable.

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12

Double-blind experiment

An experiment in which neither the doctors (or researchers) nor the patients (or members) know to which group a patient (or member) belongs.

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13

Element/Member

A specific subject or object included in a sample or population.

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14

Experiment

A method of collecting data by controlling some or all factors.

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15

Inferential statistics

Collection of methods that help make decisions about a population based on sample results.

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16

Judgement sample

A sample that includes the elements of the population selected based on the judgement and prior knowledge of an expert.

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17

Nonresponse error

The error that occurs because many of the people included in the sample do not respond.

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18

Nonsampling errors/Bias

The errors that occur in the collection, recording, and tabulation of data.

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19

Observation/Measurement

The value of a variable for an element.

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20

Observational study

A study in which the assignment of elements to different treatments is voluntary, and the researcher simply observes the results of the study.

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21

Population/Target population

The collection of all elements whose characteristics are being studied.

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22

Qualitative/Categorical variable

A variable that cannot assume numerical values but is classified into two or more categories.

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23

Quantitative variable

A variable that can be measured numerically.

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24

Quota sample

A sample selected in such a way that each group or subpopulation is represented in the sample in exactly the same proportion as in the target population.

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25

Random sample

A sample drawn in such a way that each element of the population has some chance of being included in the sample.

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26

Randomization

The procedure in which the elements are assigned to different (treatment and control) groups at random.

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27

Representative sample

A sample that contains the characteristics of the population as closely as possible.

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28

Response error

The error that occurs because people included in the survey do not provide correct answers.

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29

Sample

A portion of the population of interest.

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30

Sampling frame

The list of elements of the target population that is used to select a sample.

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31

Sampling/Chance error

The difference between the result obtained from a sample survey and the result that would be obtained from the census.

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32

Selection error

The error that occurs because the sampling frame is not representative of the population.

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33

Simple random sampling

When all samples of the same size selected from a population have the same chance of being selected.

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34

Statistics

Science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data and making decisions.

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35

Stratified random sampling

A sampling technique in which the population is divided into different strata and a sample is chosen from each stratum.

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36

Stratum

A subgroup of the population whose members are identical with regard to the possession of a characteristic.

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37

Survey

Collecting data from the elements of a population or sample.

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38

Systematic random sampling

A sampling method used to choose a sample by selecting every k-th unit from the list.

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39

Target population

The collection of all subjects of interest.

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40

Time-series data

Data that give the values of the same variable for the same element at different points in time or for different periods of time.

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41

Treatment

A condition (or set of conditions) that is imposed on a group of elements by the experimenter. This group is called the treatment group!

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42

Variable

A characteristic under study or investigation that assumes different values for different elements.

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43

Voluntary response error

The error that occurs because a survey is not conducted on a randomly selected sample, but people are invited to respond voluntarily to the survey.

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