Studied by 104 people

5.0(3)

Get a hint

Hint

Created in 2022 for M. Sumler's UMKC dual credit Elementary Statistics course.

1

Census

A survey conducted by including every element of the population.

New cards

2

Cluster

A subgroup (usually geographical) of the population that is representative of the population.

New cards

3

Cluster sampling

A sampling technique in which the population is divided into clusters and a sample is chosen from one or a few clusters.

New cards

4

Continuous variable

A (quantitative) variable that can assume any numerical value over a certain interval or intervals.

New cards

5

Control group

The group on which no condition is imposed.

New cards

6

Convenience sample

A sample that includes the most accessible members of the population.

New cards

7

Cross-section data

Data collected on different elements at the same point in time or for the same period of time.

New cards

8

Data or data set

Collection of observations or measurements on a variable.

New cards

9

Descriptive statistics

Collection of methods for organizing displaying and describing data using tables, graphs, and summary measures.

New cards

10

Designed experiment

A study in which the experimenter controls the assignment of elements to different treatment groups.

New cards

11

Discrete variable

A (quantitative) variable whose values are countable.

New cards

12

Double-blind experiment

An experiment in which neither the doctors (or researchers) nor the patients (or members) know to which group a patient (or member) belongs.

New cards

13

Element/Member

A specific subject or object included in a sample or population.

New cards

14

Experiment

A method of collecting data by controlling some or all factors.

New cards

15

Inferential statistics

Collection of methods that help make decisions about a population based on sample results.

New cards

16

Judgement sample

A sample that includes the elements of the population selected based on the judgement and prior knowledge of an expert.

New cards

17

Nonresponse error

The error that occurs because many of the people included in the sample do not respond.

New cards

18

Nonsampling errors/Bias

The errors that occur in the collection, recording, and tabulation of data.

New cards

19

Observation/Measurement

The value of a variable for an element.

New cards

20

Observational study

A study in which the assignment of elements to different treatments is voluntary, and the researcher simply observes the results of the study.

New cards

21

Population/Target population

The collection of all elements whose characteristics are being studied.

New cards

22

Qualitative/Categorical variable

A variable that cannot assume numerical values but is classified into two or more categories.

New cards

23

Quantitative variable

A variable that can be measured numerically.

New cards

24

Quota sample

A sample selected in such a way that each group or subpopulation is represented in the sample in exactly the same proportion as in the target population.

New cards

25

Random sample

A sample drawn in such a way that each element of the population has some chance of being included in the sample.

New cards

26

Randomization

The procedure in which the elements are assigned to different (treatment and control) groups at random.

New cards

27

Representative sample

A sample that contains the characteristics of the population as closely as possible.

New cards

28

Response error

The error that occurs because people included in the survey do not provide correct answers.

New cards

29

Sample

A portion of the population of interest.

New cards

30

Sampling frame

The list of elements of the target population that is used to select a sample.

New cards

31

Sampling/Chance error

The difference between the result obtained from a sample survey and the result that would be obtained from the census.

New cards

32

Selection error

The error that occurs because the sampling frame is not representative of the population.

New cards

33

Simple random sampling

When all samples of the same size selected from a population have the same chance of being selected.

New cards

34

Statistics

Science of collecting, analyzing, presenting, and interpreting data and making decisions.

New cards

35

Stratified random sampling

A sampling technique in which the population is divided into different strata and a sample is chosen from each stratum.

New cards

36

Stratum

A subgroup of the population whose members are identical with regard to the possession of a characteristic.

New cards

37

Survey

Collecting data from the elements of a population or sample.

New cards

38

Systematic random sampling

A sampling method used to choose a sample by selecting every k-th unit from the list.

New cards

39

Target population

The collection of all subjects of interest.

New cards

40

Time-series data

Data that give the values of the same variable for the same element at different points in time or for different periods of time.

New cards

41

Treatment

A condition (or set of conditions) that is imposed on a group of elements by the experimenter. This group is called the treatment group!

New cards

42

Variable

A characteristic under study or investigation that assumes different values for different elements.

New cards

43

Voluntary response error

The error that occurs because a survey is not conducted on a randomly selected sample, but people are invited to respond voluntarily to the survey.

New cards