History of Psych Ch13

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Freud stated that these three things made the collective human ego go into great shock around 1917

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Freud stated that these three things made the collective human ego go into great shock around 1917

  1. the earth wasn't the center of the universe

  2. when charles darwin demonstrated that humans aren't a unique and separate species but a higher form of lower species

  3. when freud proclaimed that humans are not rationale rulers of our lives but we are under the influence of unconscious forces which we are unaware of and have little control of

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psychoanalysis

-came from field of medicine and psychology -few ppl thought it was a true science -even though subject matter was in abnormal behavior, the primary method was clinical observation -delt with something that we can't directly measure or observe( the unconsciousness)

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Freud may be known as the father of psychoanalysis, but he didn't really invent the idea

he took the ideals of others that came before him

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Lynes

-individual elements of all reality -believed that when all of this stuff is grouped together, and expansion/extension took place

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Lynes analogy of the ocean

the ocean waves contain individual drops of water but each drop isn't seen as an individual drop, it's perceived as a wave -> the mental elements were like the drops of water

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Johann Herbert

-threshold of consciousness -anything below that lining was basically the unconscious

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Early Ideas about Psychopathology: Two Thousand Babylonian Age Society

-one was thought to be possessed by demons when they exhibited symptoms of mental illness -treated with magic or prayer

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Early Ideas about Psychopathology: Early Hebrew Culture

-mental illness was like a punishment for your sins -treated with magic or prayer

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Early Ideas about Psychopathology: Greece

-Greek philosophers considered mental illness as a result of a disorganized thought process -treatment was the persuasive power of words

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Early Ideas about Psychopathology: Christianity 4th century

-believed mental illness represents possession by evil spirits -still believed event to this day -treatment was torture or execution -this process lasted for about fourteen hundred years

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Early Ideas about Psychopathology: 18th century

-looked at mental illness as irrational behavior -this was the onset of the institution model -'treatment' was being confined in jail for a long time or institutionalized -really no treatment, sometimes ppl would be displayed in zoos for others to come and laugh at

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Philippe Pinel

-french physician -reformer -started the process of looking at mental illness in a more humane way -view of mental illness was a biological phenomena -it should be treated naturally through the scientific method -despised the inhumane treatment that was taking place for those who were considered mentally ill -during his time, there was a number of patients that got better

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what did philippe pinel change

mental illness became a research topic, patients were now viewed as machines( that needed to be fixed), fixing took place in institutions using what was invented during the Industrial Revolution

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dorothy dix

reformer of the asylums or institutions

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Benjamin Rush

-1st psychiatrist to practice in the US -signer of the Declaration of Independence -opposed slavery -established the first hospital dedicated sole to the treatment of emotional disturbance -established his 1st practice in Philadelphia -believed that irrational symptoms was due to the deficient of blood -treatment was draining blood or some type of blood infusion to either reduce or increase patient's blood level

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control the flow towards the brain by controlling the force and frequency of the pulse, used shock treatment

revival chair

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sit people in chair and put a wooden block on their head and knock on said block

tranquility technique

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by the time of freud, there were two major schools of psychiatry

  1. Somatic School: believed mental illness was a physical issue; tight or stimulated nerves caused your brain to develop abnormal behavior

  2. Psychic School: believed that abnormal behavior was caused by abnormal or psychological behavior

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revoke against somatic school

psychoanalysis

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Emmanuel Movement

-led by leaders from different denominators -director was Emmanuel Church in Boston -1st to suggest talk therapy for dealing with abnormal behavior -nurtured the growth of the psychic movement -became extremely popular -used for both individuals & groups -dilemma of medics and psychs opposing idea of ministers providing psychotherapy sessions is still going on today

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who was the first to use hypnosis

franz mesmer

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a lot of freud's writing came from charles darwin, for example

  1. unconscious mental processes

  2. unconscious mental conflicts

  3. significance of dreams

  4. importance of sexual arousal

  5. ideal that humans are driven by a biological force of love and hunger

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Sigmund Freud early life

-born in Freillberg, Morguid -son of a wool merchant -when his father's business failed, his family was forced to move to Litzig and then Vienna, he was 4 at the time -as a young boy he feared and loved his father -mother was very loving a protective -bc of their close relationship there was an unhealthy passionate attachment that he displayed( Stacy's mom has got it gooiinnng on) -the positive things of his life he attributed them to his mom

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freud's fear for his dad and sexual attraction for his mom helped him form

oedipus complex -great deal of his theories were based on his childhood experiences and recollection of his life

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freud's childhood

-had a high level of intelligence so his family encouraged him to study(psychopaths have a high IQ) -only child in the house that was allowed an oil lamp to study( privileged brAT) -resented his siblings even though he was the favorite child

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Freud's education

-graduated from his HS at 17, he spoke 6 different languages -knowledge of Darwin theories of evolution inspired him to pursue a career in science and study medicine -even though he studied medicine he had no desire to practice it, he hoped that his degree would earn him a spot in the field

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Freud's college life(blunt time)

-started his higher education at Vienna Unni performing extensive research in biology and physiology -it was at college were he became a cocaine addict -became Pablo Escobar himself bc mans was giving it out to everyonnnneee -claimed it helped with his chronic depression -later developed a HUGE morphine addiction-> claimed it hElpEd with the cocaine one -became convinced he discovered this miracle drug that could change the universe( mans zOOTED) however one of this colleagues overheard this info and published stuff about cocaine before him

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1881: Freud received his medical degre

-since he was jewish no ministry would hire him at the time -thus he went into private practice as a clinical neurologist

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Martha Bernayes

-engaged with freud for 4yrs bc he was hella broke -during this time he forbade her to breaTHE the air of another, no one could give her attention -family was considered a guest -married and had six kids -didn't spend a lot of time with her -when he went on vacaTION he either went aLonE( yeah suuurreeee) or with her sister( le gasp he banged the sister)

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Case of Anna O

-was considered as the cornerstone of psychoanalysis -patient of Breuer and suffered from hysterical complaints -1st symptom appeared when she was nursing her dying father -Breuer would practice hypnosis with Anna & discovered that as long as she was under hypnosis she'd recall certain experiences that'd connect with certain symptoms -later was found that talking about these symptoms under hypnosis relieved them -Breuer became familiar with her experiences and believed that her reliving and relieving them could be the start of a great discovery

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hysterical complaints

paralysis, memory loss, mental deterioration, nausea, disturbance in vision and speech

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Breuer ceasing with the Anna O case

-Breuer's wife was jealous bc Ana was pretty and he was spending a lot of time with her( 6-7hrs) -Ana was overly attached to Breuer & he may have had some feeling for her too( NETFLIX WRITERS TAKING NOTES RN) so he had to terminate the meetings -he went to her house and said "ur cured, goodbye forever' -late that evening he was called again bc apparently miss ma'am was having another one of her episodes and it was a hysterical pregnancy one and guess who the 'imaginary father was? YUP U GUESSED RIGHT JB HIMSELF -Breuer put Ana under hypnosis, fixed the problem and told his colleges that he'd never work with a mentally ill patient again

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Anna O's real name is

-Bertha Pappeheim -she got much better and got over her emotional problems -became a pioneer in social work and helped lots of women -became famous in her own life -honestly good for her, slay

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the case of ana o introduced what to freud

free association or talk therapy method

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free association or talk therapy method

occurred when a patient was encouraged to talk openly about the first thing that popped into their head no matter how embarrassing, unimportant, or foolish

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freud's main goal in psychoanalysis was to

bring into consciousness repressed memories or thoughts which he believed where the main cause of all patient problems( many of these repressed problems involved sexual issues)

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the studies of hysteria

-teamwork of freud and breuer -publication that brought the beginning of psychoanalysis movement

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vienna circle

-group of people made by freud -rule was to not disagree with freud and if you did you'd get kicked out and couldn't return -breuer left freud bc he didn't agree with his ideals that sex was the primary cause of all neurotic behavior

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one of the most controversial ideals that freud had was his views on childhood seduction theory

-females had experienced childhood seduction or trauma often at the hands of their father or some other older family member -ppl weren't happy with this statement but Freud being the super awesome amazing person that he was told his critics to ahem ✨GO TO HELL✨ -1yr later he revised his statement and said that the seduction itself is fantasy while the patient's belief was actually true -later was discovered that his theory might have been true( which sucks honestly :(

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Freud's view on sex

-considered it to be a degrading and animalistic need( okay but like you had sIX KIDS SO LIKE) -despised the only method of birth control at the time, condoms -completely gave up sex at 41yrs -fell into a sexual frustration stage -1st yr he gave it up experienced fear in traveling, open spaces, and death

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weakness of the nerve and followed with headache, fatigue and easily irritable

neuroasthenia

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after freud self diagnosed himself with anxiety and neuroasthenia, he decided he needed psychoanalysis and began analyzing himself

-started to analyze his dreams and realized they could be a rich source of material and provide some clues of what some of the disturbances he had -believed this info he was looking for came from the unconscious mind -it was through his dream analysis the animosity for his father came to light -he considered that the best patient he's ever had was himself(wwOOoOoooOOOOOOw)

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Freud's therapy for himself lasted about two years

-at the conclusion for his therapy he wrote about his most popular pieces of work in 1900 called The Interpretation of Dreams -met Carl Jung through his publication

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1901: Psychopathology of Everyday life

-introduced the Freudian Slip -act or forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflects unconscious motives or anxiety -ex. when Biden started to say "when I run for president" but caught himself

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1902: When Freud started to have his Vienna Circle(actually called Psychoanalytic Discussion)

-people got together weekly and had discussions about neurotic motives or anxiety -his only rule was that no one could contradict him

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1905: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality

-freud spelled out the psychosexual stages -oral: birth to second yr of life -anal: 2-4yrs -phallic: 4-5yrs -latency: 5-12yrs -genital: begins at the onset of

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1909: Freud and Carl Jung was invited to the US by G Stanley Hall

-Hall was having the 20yr Clark Anniversary -Freud got to meet all the big names in psych and his work was one of the toppings for the APA -direct result of Freud's visit was the American Psychoanalytic Association -America warmly welcomed Freud but he criticized them a lot( cooking was bad, not enough toilets, language was hard, Americans weren't well mannered

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what happened between Alder and Freud

in 1911 Alder broke from Freud and Freud was really upset

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what happened between Jung and Freud

in 1914 Jung left Freud

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1923: Freud is diagnosed with cancer

-underwent 3 surgeries in a 6 year lifespan -still remained very alert and worked up until his death

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Freud and the Nazis

Since he was Jewish, Nazis burned all of his work in 1933 and Anna Freud was arrested and detained in 1938

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Freud's last days

-early in his illness he chose Dr. Mat Sheward -told Sheward to not make him suffer -on Sep. 23rd 1939 Sheward injected Freud with a dose of morphine and Freud passed away

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Freud's Theories on Dreams

-believed that Dreams represent a disguised satisfaction of repressed desire -also thought dreams were the essence of wish fulfillment -two types: Manifest and Latent Content

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Manifest Content

conscious dream recollection; the actual image, thoughts, or contents contained in a dream or the details one remembers from the dream

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Latent Content

things that are hidden from one conscious awareness; mind and body hide these things bc it's too traumatic and upsetting for one

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conscious part

-top of iceberg -small and insignificant

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unconscious part

-lower part of iceberg -vast and powerful -dominates the instincts and driving force of behavior

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Id, Ego, and Superego

-first had this as the conscious vs conscious but then changed it to the three parts of personality

  1. Id

  2. Ego

  3. Superego

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Id

-psychic energy that represents these blind cravings and irrational passions/thoughts -goal was to reduce tension-> does this by seeking pleasure all the time( 'I want it and I want it now')

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Ego

-more rational aspect of personality -goal: mediator b/t Id and external world -represents rational thought and reason -operates under reality and job is to restrain Id

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Superego

-operates under morale principle -like parent of the personality -internal parent in us

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