AQA Psychology - Biopsychology

studied byStudied by 25 people
5.0(2)
get a hint
hint

nervous system

1 / 137

Tags and Description

138 Terms

1

nervous system

What is the complex system of nerve cells that carry messages to and from the brain?

New cards
2

central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)

What is the nervous system made up of? Include both full name and abbreviation.

New cards
3

somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS)

What two systems made up the PNS?

New cards
4

brain and spinal cord

What does the CNS consist of?

New cards
5

reflex actions

What is the spinal cord responsible for?

New cards
6

somatic nervous system / SNS

Which system controls voluntary movements and passes information from sensory and motor neurons to and from the CNS?

New cards
7

autonomic nervous system / ANS

Which system controls involuntary actions and transmits motor information to and from the CNS?

New cards
8

sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

What are the two systems that made up the ANS?

New cards
9

sympathetic nervous system

Which system increases bodily activities and triggers the fight-or-flight reaction?

New cards
10

parasympathetic nervous system

Which system maintains or decreases bodily activities, returning the body to the rest state?

New cards
11

specialised cells that carry information throughout the body using chemical and electrical signals

What are neurons?

New cards
12

B

Which part is the control center of a neuron (soma)?

<p>Which part is the control center of a neuron (soma)?</p>
New cards
13

A

Which letter represents dendrites?

<p>Which letter represents dendrites?</p>
New cards
14

receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors

What is the role of dendrites?

New cards
15

myelin sheath

Which part protects the axon?

New cards
16

carries impulses away from the cell body

What is the role of the axon?

New cards
17

nodes of Ranvier

What are the gaps between cells in the axon called?

<p>What are the gaps between cells in the axon called?</p>
New cards
18

axon terminal

Which part of the neuron allows for communication with the next neuron across the synapse?

<p>Which part of the neuron allows for communication with the next neuron across the synapse?</p>
New cards
19

sensory (neurons), relay (neurons), motor (neurons)

What are the three types of neurons?

New cards
20

sensory neuron

Which type of neuron carries messages from the PNS to the CNS?

New cards
21

relay neurons

Which type of neuron carries messages from one part of the CNS to another?

New cards
22

motor neurons

Which type of neuron carries messages from the CNS to effectors?

New cards
23

relay and motor neurons

What are two types of neurons that are multipolar?

New cards
24

synapse

What is the gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of the adjacent neuron called?

New cards
25

one-way transmission

Is synaptic transmission one-way or two-way transmission?

New cards
26

neurotransmitters

What is the chemical message that is packaged into synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse when triggered called?

New cards
27

serotonin

Which neurotransmitter can caused inhibitory effect?

New cards
28

acetylcholine / adrenaline / dopamine

Which neurotransmitter can caused an excitatory effect?

New cards
29

until reuptake

How long will effects of the neurotransmitter last?

New cards
30

summation

What is the process that determines whether the neuron will fire after totaling the excitatory and inhibitory input?

New cards
31

acetylcholine / ACh

What is the neurotransmitter that caused muscles to contract?

New cards
32

endocrine system

What is the name of a chemical system of communication that instructs glands to release hormones directly into the bloodstream?

New cards
33

target organs

Where are hormones carried towards?

New cards
34

glands

What are the organs that secrete hormones called?

New cards
35

pituitary gland

What is the 'master gland' called?

New cards
36

hormones

Do effects of hormones or effects of neurotransmitters last longer?

New cards
37

fight-or-flight response

Which response is activated by the sympathetic nervous system when we are in high-arousal or stressful situtations?

New cards
38

acute stressor

Which event triggers the hypothalamus?

New cards
39

adrenaline

Name the hormone that triggers the fight-or-flight response.

New cards
40

increased heart rate / increased blood pressure / pupils dilate

State an example of an emergency reaction caused by fight-or-flight.

New cards
41

suppressed digestion / dry mouth / contracted rectum

State an example of a non-emergency reaction caused by fight-or-flight.

New cards
42

localisation of function

What is the idea that specific functions have specific locations within the brain called?

New cards
43

hemispheric lateralisation

What is the idea that the two hemispheres of the brain are functionally different and are responsible for different behaviours?

<p>What is the idea that the two hemispheres of the brain are functionally different and are responsible for different behaviours?</p>
New cards
44

cerebral cortex

What is the outer layer of both brain hemispheres called?

<p>What is the outer layer of both brain hemispheres called?</p>
New cards
45

corpus callosum

What is the 'bridge' that connects the two brain hemispheres, allowing communication between the two halves called?

<p>What is the &apos;bridge&apos; that connects the two brain hemispheres, allowing communication between the two halves called?</p>
New cards
46

right hemisphere

Which hemisphere is dominant in recognising emotions?

New cards
47

left hemisphere

Which hemisphere is responsible for language processing?

New cards
48

motor cortex

Which part of the brain sends messages to the muscles and is responsible for generating voluntary motor movements?

<p>Which part of the brain sends messages to the muscles and is responsible for generating voluntary motor movements?</p>
New cards
49

frontal lobe

Where is the motor cortex located?

<p>Where is the motor cortex located?</p>
New cards
50

somatosensory cortex/area

Which is the area of the brain that processes sensory information?

<p>Which is the area of the brain that processes sensory information?</p>
New cards
51

parietal lobe

Where is the somatosensory cortex located?

<p>Where is the somatosensory cortex located?</p>
New cards
52

visual area/cortex

Which part of the receives and processes visual information?

<p>Which part of the receives and processes visual information?</p>
New cards
53

occipital lobe

Where is the visual area located in the brain?

<p>Where is the visual area located in the brain?</p>
New cards
54

auditory area/cortex

Which part of the brain is concerned with the analysis of speech-based information?

<p>Which part of the brain is concerned with the analysis of speech-based information?</p>
New cards
55

temporal lobe

Where is the auditory area located?

<p>Where is the auditory area located?</p>
New cards
56

speech production

What is Broca's area responsible for?

<p>What is Broca&apos;s area responsible for?</p>
New cards
57

left frontal lobe

Where is the Broca's area located in the brain?

<p>Where is the Broca&apos;s area located in the brain?</p>
New cards
58

Wernicke's area

Which area of the brain (B) is responsible for language comprehension?

<p>Which area of the brain (B) is responsible for language comprehension?</p>
New cards
59

temporal lobe in the left hemisphere (encircling the auditory cortex)

Where is the Wernicke's area located?

<p>Where is the Wernicke&apos;s area located?</p>
New cards
60

Broca's aphasia

Which condition is characterised by speech that is slow, laborious and lacking fluency?

New cards
61

Wernicke's aphasia

Which condition is characterised by neologisms (nonsense words)?

New cards
62

case studies of brain damaged patients / brain scan

Where does evidence to support localisation of functions come from?

New cards
63

Paterson et al (1988)

Who used brain scans to demonstrate how Wernicke's area was active during a listening task and Broca's area was active during a reading task?

New cards
64

too simplistic

What is the main point of criticisms for the localisation theories?

New cards
65

split-brain research

What is the research conducted by Sperry to help understand hemispheric lateralisation?

New cards
66

11 patients that had their corpus callosum removed

What was the sample in Sperry's study?

New cards
67

to remove severe epileptic seizures

Why do the patients had their corpus callosum removed?

New cards
68

If the image is shown to the right visual field, they can describe it; but if it is shown to the left visual field, they report that there is nothing there

What were the results when participants were asked to describe what they see in Sperry’s research?

New cards
69

the patient select the object that was most closely associated with the object presented to the left visual field

What is the results when the patients are asked to select an object using their left hand?

New cards
70

left hemisphere

Which hemisphere processes the right visual field (RVF)?

New cards
71

low population validity

What is a problem with the small sample size in Sperry's study?

New cards
72

lowers internal validity

What if the patients were taking drugs in the split-brain research?

New cards
73

JW

Name a case study that contradicts Sperry's research from Gazzaniga (1998). The case study can speak using their right hemisphere

New cards
74

well-controlled

What was a strength of the split-brain research?

New cards
75

Szflarski (2006)

Who suggests that lateralisation may be further complicated by age?

New cards
76

neural plasticity

What is the term used to describe the ability of the brain to change in response to experience?

New cards
77

spontaneous recovery

What is the term used to describe the idea that recovery occurred quickly after trauma and then slows down?

New cards
78

synaptic pruning

What is the process that can occur at any stage of life in which rarely used connections are eliminated and frequently used connections are strengthened?

New cards
79

secondary neural pathways

What is unmasked or activated to enable functioning of the brain to continue? This "pathway" would not normally be used to carry out certain functions

New cards
80

axonal sprouting

What is the growth of new nerve ending which connect with other undamaged nerve cells to form new neuronal pathways?

New cards
81

axonal sprouting / reformation of blood vessels / recruitment of similar areas on the opposite side of the brain

Name a structural change in the brain that supports the unmasking of secondary neural pathways

New cards
82

age / gender

Name a factor that affects the recovery of the brain after trauma

New cards
83

Maguire et al (2000)

Who used an MRI scanner to scan the brains of London taxi drivers and found that they had significantly more volume of grey matter in the posterior hippocampus?

New cards
84

Kempermann et al (1998)

Who found that rats placed in complex environments had an increased number of new neurons that rats housed in laboratory cages?

New cards
85

neurorehabiliation

What practical application has plasticity contributed to?

New cards
86

Ramachandran and Hirstein (1998)

Who found that 60-80% of amputees have been known to develop phantom limb syndrome, which caused an unpleasant feeling that the missing limb is still there?

New cards
87

functional magnetic resonance imaging

What does fMRI stand for?

New cards
88

electronencephalogram

What does EEG stand for?

New cards
89

event-related potentials

What does ERPs stand for?

New cards
90

Haemodynamic response

What happens when a brain area is more active, consumes more oxygen and to meet this increased demand, blood flow is directed to the active area?

New cards
91

3D images

Which type of image does fMRI produce?

New cards
92

5 seconds

What is the time-lagged between the image produced and brain activity in fMRI scans?

New cards
93

detect activity in deeper regions / records specific brain activity for localisation

Name a strength of fMRI

New cards
94

expensive / ignores communication between areas / low temporal resolution

Name a weakness of fMRI

New cards
95

EEG

Which method of studying the brain measures electrical activity within the brain via electrodes on a skull cap?

New cards
96

high temporal resolution / cheap / has practical application / takes into account communication between areas

What is a strength of using EEG?

New cards
97

cannot detect image from deeper brain regions (hypothalamus)

What is a weakness of using EEG scans

New cards
98

statistical analysis

What does ERPs use to filter out specific types of brainwaves that relate to a specific function?

New cards
99

lack of standardisation in which statistical test to use

What is a weakness of using ERPs that is not a weakness of EEG?

New cards
100

post-mortem examinations

What is the analysis of a person's brain following their death?

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 47 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 102 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7080 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(37)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard28 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard314 terms
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)