MICR 3050- Majors Final Exam Unit 3

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Disinfectant

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38 Terms
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Disinfectant

Killing, inhibiting, or the removal of pathogenic microorganisms on inanimate objects

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Autoclave

Uses moist heat sterilization Effective against all microbes

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Refrigerator

Slows microbial growth and reproduction

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Ultraviolet Radiation

Non-ionizing radiation Poor penetrating power Used to sterilize the surfaces in an operating room

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Antiseptic

Chemical agent that kills or inhibits the growth of microogranisms when applied to living tissue

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Pasteurization

Controlled heating at temperatures well below boiling Kills pathogens and slows spoilage

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Gamma Irradiation

Form of ionizing radiation Penetrates deep into objects

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What is an exception to refrigerators as a low temperature microbe growth control method?

Psychrotolerant microbes

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Synthetic Antimicrobial Drugs

Chemical compound used to treat a diseasse by destroying or inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microbes

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Antibiotics

Naturally produced antimicrobial agents

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Semi-Synthetic Antimicrobial Drugs

Chemically modified antibiotics

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Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics

Attacks many different pathogens

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Narrow-Spectrum Antibiotics

Attack only a select few pathogens

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Is penicillin a synthetic, a semi-synthetic, or an antibiotic?

Antibiotic

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Antimicrobial Resistance

Acquired ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of a chemotherapeutic agent to which it is normally sensitive

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3 Ways drug resistance can occur naturally

  1. Natural Immunity Genes

  2. Spontaneous Mutations

  3. Horizontal Gene Transfer

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Intrinsic Factors of Microbial Spoilage

Food composition pH Water activity Physical structure

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Extrinsic Factors of Microbial Spoilage

Temperature Humidity Atmosphere

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What is the Danger Zone Range?

5-60C

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Food Intoxication

Ingestion of preformed microbial toxins in foods Growth of the pathogen in the host is not required

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Food Infection

Infection resulting from the ingestion of the pathogens in food Ingestion is followed by colonization

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Characteristics of an effective vaccine

Stimulates an innate immune response Stimulates an adapative immune response

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Penicillin Cell Target

Peptidoglycan in Gram+ cells

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The synthesis of what is targeted by penicillin?

Cell walls

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How does microbial resistance spread through bacterial populations?

Horizontal Gene Transfer

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Gram+, food intoxication, enterotoxin producer that has the distinguishing symptoms of: Explosive Vomiting Subnormal Body Temp

Staphylococcus aureus

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Gram+, food intoxication, neurotoxin producer that has the distinguishing symptoms of: Heart paralysis Difficulty breathing, swallowing, speaking

Clostridium botulinum

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Gram-, food infection, endotoxin/enterotoxin/cytotoxin producer that has an infectious dose of 10^7-10^9 and has the distinguishing symptoms: Headache Chills Vomiting Diarrhea Fever

Salmonella enterica

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Gram-, food infection, verotoxin, producer that has an infectious dose of <10 and has the distinguishing symptoms: Blood Diarrhea Kidney Failure

Enterohemmorrhagic E. coli

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Gram+, food infection, psychrotolerant, acid-tolerant, salt-tolerant microbe that has an infefctious does of <1000 and has the distinguishing symptoms: Bacteremia Meningitis Miscarriage

Listeria monocytogenes

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How can fermentation aid in food preservation?

Lowers the pH of food, making it hard for microbes to survive

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What type of process is fermantation characteristic of?

Self-limiting

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Probiotic Characterics

Live microorganisms that can confer health benefits when administered in adequate amounts

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Prebiotic Characteristics

Substances that promote the growth of probiotics

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Red Wine Characteristics

Skin is left in during the fermentation process to achieve the red color Aged longer

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White Wine Characteristics

Skin is removed before the fermentation process Aged for considerably less time than red wine

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Lager Beer Characteristics

Uses a bottom yeast for the fermentation process Fermented for a longer period of time at a cooler temperature

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Ale Characteristics

Uses top yeast for the fermentation process Fermentated for a short period of time at a warm temperature

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