4th Quarter Bio Exam

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Characteristics of Eubacteria

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Characteristics of Eubacteria

  • Prokaryotes

  • Unicellular 

  • Cell wall with peptidoglycan

  • Autotroph or Heterotroph

  • Some motile: move with flagella or cilia

Some  non-motile: do not move

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Gram Staining

How we can first group bacteria

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Gram Positive

  • Peptidoglycan is exposed to stain (thick) → stains purple

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Gram Negative

  • Peptidoglycan is not exposed to stain (thin)→ stains pink

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Coccus

Round

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Bacillus

Rods

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Spirillum

Spirals

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Diplo-

In pairs

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Strepto-

In chains

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Staphylo-

In clumbs

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Reproduction of Bacteria

Through Binary fission or conjugation

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Binary Fission

(Asexual) Cell divides in half producing 2 identical cells.

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Conjugation

  • Cells exchange genetic material by connecting to each other by a bridge (pili) to increase genetic diversity.

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Importance of Bacteria

They are Decomposers, can do Nitrogen Fixation, and are important in Food Products.

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How is Bacteria a Decomposer?

Break down organic compounds into simpler, smaller molecules.

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How does Bacteria do Nitrogen Fixation?

Bacteria convert nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3) for plants.

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How is Bacteria Important in Food Products?

  • Bacteria carry on fermentation.

    • Ex: yogurt, cheese, milk

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Why is it important to control Bacterial growth?

Bacteria can be pathogenic (can cause diseases)

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Why can bacteria cause diseases?

Caused by toxins from bacteria

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Ways to Fight Bacteria

  • Disinfectants

  • Antibiotics

  • Pasteurization

  • Refrigeration

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Disinfectants

Chemical solutions that kill pathogens

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Antibiotics

Medicine used to kill bacteria

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Pasteurization

(Sterilization by heat) Most bacteria die at high temperatures.

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Refrigeration

Low temperatures prevent bacteria from reproducing. 

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Viruses

non-living parasites

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Where can viruses be found?

air, water, and soil

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How Viruses Reproduce

need to infect a host cell and use their organelles

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Why are Viruses considered to be non-living?

Because of how they reproduce

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Viral Structure

  • A core of genetic material

  • A protein coat

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What is the core of a virus made of?

DNA or RNA

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Capsid

Protein coat that surrounds the genetic material of a virus

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What do Capsids do?

Protect the genetic material and acts like a Trojan Horse with the help of the surface proteins to enter the cell

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Retrovirus

starts with RNA

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Bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

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TRUE OR FALSE: Viruses are give scientific names

FALSE

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How are viruses named?

  • after the disease they cause (influenza virus) or 

  • given a catalog number (H1N1 Virus)

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What 2 cycles can a Virus go through to produce more viruses?

  • Lysogenic Cycle

  • Lytic Cycle

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Initial Infection of a Virus

  1. The virus attaches itself to the cell’s membrane

  2. Virus inserts its genetic material into the cell and fuses with the host DNA

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Lysogenic Infection

  • (Sleeper Agent)

  • Replication:

    • When the cell DNA replicates, the virus DNA replicates too.  

  • Distribution:

    • After mitosis, the new cell receives a copy of the virus DNA

      • No new viruses are made unless “activated”.

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TRUE OR FALSE: Lysogenic Infection does not produce infection/disease

TRUE

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Lytic Infection

  • (Active Agents)

  • Replication and Assembly: 

    • The virus takes over the host cell and makes physical viruses

  • Lysis and Release:

    • The newly assembled viruses burst out (lysis) of the cell membrane killing the host cell

Produces infection/disease – Not good

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Viral Defense

Only defense we have against viruses are: Our Immune System and Vaccines

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Immune System

a network of biological processes that protects an organism from diseases.

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Vaccines

  • A solution containing weakened or killed viruses 

  • only work against viruses that have proteins that do not change

    • HIV, Cold, Influenza (Flu): Have capsids that mutate often - do not work

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Antiviral Drugs

  •  used to treat infections caused by viruses

  • attack the enzymes (proteins) needed for viral replication.

    • Can be used to make vaccines

  • do not cure infections, but stops the spread.

    • They reduce the rate of viral growth but will not inactivate the virus already present.

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Protists

  • 200,000 species come in different shapes, sizes, and colors

  • All are eukaryotes – have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

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Protozoans

  • Animal-like Protists

  • Unicellular – made up of one cell

  • Heterotrophs – they eat other organisms or dead organic matter

  • Classified by how they move

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Zooflagellates

  • Protozoan

  • AKA The Motor Boats

  • Move through their flagella

  • Disease: Intestinal Disease

  • Size: .6 – 5 um

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Sarcodines

  • Protozoan

  • AKA The Blobs (Amoebas)

  • Move through their pseudopods

  • Disease: Some brain diseases

  • Size: 2.3 – 3 um

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Ciliates

  • Protozoan

  • AKA The hairy ones (paramecium)

  • Move through their cilia

  • Disease: Only one – Balantidium coli.

  • Size: 10 um – 4mm

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Sporozoans

  • Protozoan

  • AKA Non-motile (The parasite)

  • Movement: N/A

  • Disease: Malaria

  • Size: 2-100 um

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Plant-like Protists

  • Photosynthetic – make their own food

  • No roots, stems, or leaves

  • Each has chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments

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Euglenophytes

  • Plant-like protist

  • Aquatic, move like animals, can ingest food if light is not available

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Diatoms

  • Plant-like protist

  • Contain silica (glass); photosynthetic pigment (carotenoids)

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Chrysophytes

  • Plant-like protists

  • 2 flagella; golden brown; fresh water

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Dinoflagellates

  • (spinning ones)

  • Plant-like protists

  • 2 flagella; create toxins; bioluminescent

  • ex: Red tides (algae blooms), Karenia brevis

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Red Algae

  • Multi-cellular Plant-like protist

  • Red seaweed; marine

  • Photosynthetic pigment; Chlorophyll a

  • Ex: Seaweed used to make agar

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Brown Algae

  • Multi-cellular plant-like protist

  • Brown with air bladders

  • Photosynthetic pigment: Chlorophyll a & c

  • Ex: Kelp

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Green Algae

  • Multi-cellular plant-like protist

  • Green; live alone or in groups fresh water;  can be multicellular, unicellular or colonial

  • Photosynthetic pigment: Chlorphyll a & b

  • ex: sea lettuce, Chlamydomonas, Volvox

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What is the life cycle of Green Algae?

Alteration of Generations

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Fungus-like Protists

  • All form delicate, netlike structures on the surface of their food source

  • Obtain energy by decomposing organic material

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Slime molds (Cellular)

  • Fungus-like Protists

  • Live in cool moist, shady places where they grow on damp, organic matter

  • Can live separately at cells for feeding or in groups

  • Movement: Creeping movement (2.5 cm/hour)

  • Reproduction: Come together for reproduction

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Slime Molds (Acellular)

  • Fungus-like protist

  • Live in cool moist, shady places where they grow on damp, organic matter

  • Many nuclei; no cell walls or membranes

  • Movement: Creeping movement (2.5 cm/hour)

  • Reproduction: Form spores when surroundings dry up

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Water Molds

  • Fungus-like protist

  • Type of Fungus: Mold and mildew

  • Grows in moist places; feed on dead organisms; white fuzzy

  • No movement

  • Reproduction: Produce asexual motile spores

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Fungi

eukaryotic heterotrophs; cell wall made of chitin (complex carbohydrate); digest food outside bodies, then absorb it

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Fungi Classification

  • based on structure and method of reproduction 

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How many known species of fungi are there?

  • 100,000+

    • Many have still not been identified

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Hyphae

thin filaments that make up multicellular fungi

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Mycelium

  • many hyphae tangled together

    • Large surface area = max. food absorption

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Fruiting body

reproductive portion of mycelium; above ground

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Asexual reproduction for Fungi

fragmentation of hyphae or production of spores

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Sporangia

spore producing structures

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Sporangiophores

tips of specialized hyphae where sporangia are found

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Most spores are…

wind pollinated or carried by animals; must land in favorable environment w/ proper food, moisture, and temp.

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Sexual Reproduction for Fungi

fusion of hyphae forms diploid zygote; meiosis forms haploid spore

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Zygomycota

  • One of the four main groups of fungi

  • Common molds

  • often on bread, meat, cheese

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Ascomycota

  • One of the four main groups of fungi

  • Sac fungi or yeast

  • named ascus — spore containing reproductive structure

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Basidiomycota

  • One of the four main group of fungi

  • Club fungi

  • Basidium - specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club

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Deutoromycota

  • One of the four main groups of fungi

  • Imperfect fungi

  • difficult to classify; scientists have not been able to see its life cycle.  

    • Ex:  penicillin

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Evolutionary History of Fungi

  • Present since life moved onto land

  • Oldest fossil = 460 myo

  • May have helped plants colonize land by obtaining nutrients from the ground

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Heterotrophic Fungi

Mycelia grow into tissues of other organisms, release digestive enzymes and absorb food

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Saprobes in Fungi Relationships

most fungi are decomposers

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Parasites in Fungi Relationships

some fungi harm other organisms

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Symbionts in Fungi Relationships

some fungi live closely with other organisms

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Fungi as Decomposers

Maintain equilibrium by recycling nutrients by decomposing organic material

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Parasitic Fungi

  • Can cause serious plant and animal diseases

    • Plant diseases:  corn smut, mildew, wheat rust

    • Human diseases: athlete’s foot/jock itch/ringworm, Candida (yeast infections)

    • Other animal diseases:  Cordyceps

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Mutualistic Fungi

Lichens and Mycorrhizae

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Lichens in Mutualistic Relationships

algae provide food, fungi provide nutrients

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Mycorrhizae in mutualistic relationships

plants provide food, fungi increase root surface area

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Lichens

fungi and green algae and/or cyanobacteria

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Mycorrhizae

fungi and plant roots

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Plant

  • multicellular

  • Eukaryotes

  • Cell walls made of cellulose

  • Carry out photosynthesis

  • Develop multicellular embryo

  • Are autotrophs some are saprobes and parasites

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Plant Life Cycle

  • Sporophyte (diploid)

  • Gametophyte (haploid)

  • Some have asexual reproduction (vegetative)

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Algae

  • First plants — plant kingdom ancestor

  • Non vascular

  • No seeds

  • Live near water

  • Oldest type of plant

  • Seaweed, brown, green, red algae

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Plant Characteristics

  • Green in color (due to presence of chloroplasts)

  • Square or brick-like cells (cellulose)

  • Non-seed Producing and Seed Producing

  • Also Nonvascula

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Nonvascular

  • plant with no water transport tubes & vascular plants

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Bryophytes

  • Seedless plants

  • Non-vascular

  • Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts

    • Tiny

    • Moist places

    • Carpet-like

    • Depend on water for reproduction

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Ferns

  • Seedless plants

  • Vascular

  • Ferns, Club Mosses, horsetails

    • Leaves, stems, roots

    • Popular houseplants

    • Spores (no seeds)

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Gymnosperm

  • Seed plant

  • Conifers, gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes

  • Seed plants - cone bearing

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Angiosperm

  • Seed plant

  • Flowering and fruits

  • Division Anthophyta

  • Subdivided into two groups – Monocots and Dicots

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