BIOL 2460 - EXAM 3 REVIEW - PARKS - MICROBIOLOGY

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Binary Fission Steps

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Tags and Description

🔑: ME: membrane PS: Protein Synthesis NA: Nucleic Acids MP: Metabolic Pathways AFD: Antifungal Drugs APD: Antiprotozoan Drugs AHD: Antihelminthic Drugs AVD: Antiviral Drugs AA: Alkylating Agents HM: Heavy Metals P: Peroxygens B: Bisbiguanides

211 Terms

1

Binary Fission Steps

G - growth and increase in cell size R - replication of DNA D - cytoplasmic division; cytokinesis S - septum formation and daughter cell divisions

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2

Z-ring

formed during cytokinesis with the FtsZ protein to form a divisome

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3

Divisome

promotes the formation of peptidoglycan and septum

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4

Generation Time

time takes to double population

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5

E. coli

20 min.

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6

S. aureus

30 min.

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7

B. subtilis

120 min.

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8

M. tuberculosis

15-20hrs

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9

Nn

number of cells at generation n

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10

n

number of generations

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11

N0

initial number of cells

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12

Growth curve

closed system with finite nutrients

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13

Lag Phase

cells grow larger and metabotically active (inoculum cells)

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14

Log Phase

exponential; binary fission; cell replication > cell death

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15

Stationary Phase

cells enter survival mode and < less susceptible to antibiotics; cell replication = cell death

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16

Death Phase

cell replication < cell death; endospores; persisters

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17

Persisters

surviving cells with slow metabolism (tuberculosis)

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18

Sustainable Growth

Open system cultures have infinite resources

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19

Chemostat

used to maintain a continuous culture in which nutrients are supplied at a steady rate

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20

Direct microscopic cc

cells are counted under a microscope; CANNOT distinguish between live or dead cells; Known volume is transferred to a calibrated slide (Petroff-Hausser chamber) and cells are manually counted

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21

Fluorescence Staining

cells are counted under a microscope or flow cytometer; Red stain binds to damaged cells to indicate DEAD cells

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22

Coulter counter

detects electrical resistance change due to cell density; CANNOT differentiate live/dead

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23

Viable plate counts

count of live cells; samples are diluted and grown on solid media;
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24

Pour Plate Method

bacterial sample mixed with warm agar - > sample poured onto sterile plate -> sample swirled to mix, allowed to solidify -> plate incubated until bacterial colonies grow

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25

Spread Plate Method

sample poured onto solid medium -> spread sample evenly over the surface -> plate incubated until bacterial colonies grow on the surface of the medium

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26

Optical Density (turbidity)

Measured w/ spectrophotometer; light is passed through culture and is measured on other side

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27

Alternate Patterns of Growth

fragmentation in cyanobacteria and budding in planctomycetes: Gemmata obscuriglobus

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28

Biofilm Formation

  1. Attachment of planktonic cells to a substrate

  2. Attachment becomes irreversible; cells become sessile

  3. Growth & division on substrate

  4. Production of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)

  5. Attachment of secondary colonizers & dispersion of microbes to new locations

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29

Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)

Hydrated polysaccharide gel with other macromolecules and channels (sugar-gel) EX: (rivers, pipelines, oral cavity) (cuts and wounds, lungs, intestines)

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30

Quorum Sensing

cell to cell communication

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31

Autoinducer

small molecules are produced to induce various actions (positive-feedback)

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32

Biofilm and Human Health

  1. Cells in deep layers may be metabolically inactive

  2. EPS may slow diffusion of biocidal agents

  3. Provide optimal environment for sharing of plasmids

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33

Optimal oxygen concentration

ideal concentration of O2 (best for growth)

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34

Minimum permissive oxygen concentration

lowest O2 concentration allowing growth

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35

Maximum permissive oxygen concentration

highest O2 concentration allowing growth

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36

Obligate aerobes

must have O2; Micrococcus luteus

<p>must have O2; Micrococcus luteus</p>
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37

Obligate anaerobes

prefers other than O2; Bacteroides spp.

<p>prefers other than O2; Bacteroides spp.</p>
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38

Facultative anaerobes

can do both; Staphylococcus spp.

<p>can do both; Staphylococcus spp.</p>
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39

Aerotolerant anaerobes

tolerant to O2; Lactobacillus spp.

<p>tolerant to O2; Lactobacillus spp.</p>
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40

Microaerophiles

minimum O2; Campylobacter spp.

<p>minimum O2; Campylobacter spp.</p>
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41

Fluid Thioglycolate Medium (FTM)

low % agar tube that has a gradient of O2

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42

Aerotolerance

determined by location of growth

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43

pH

acidic
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44

Neutrophiles

~7 pH

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45

Acidophiles

<5.5 pH

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46

Alkaphiles

8-10.5 pH

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47

Psychrophiles

<0°C; love cold and unsaturated

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48

Psychotrophs

4-20°C; make food go bad

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49

Mesophiles

20-45°C; human microbe

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50

Thermophiles

50-80°C; love heat, saturated

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51

Hyperthermophiles

80-110°C; some survive @ > 121°C

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52

Halophiles

Salt/solute lovers

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53

Halotolerance

tolerate high salt (MSA & S. aureus)

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54

Barometric pressure

ability to withstand great pressure; extremophiles

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55

Barophiles

require high atmospheric pressure; unculturable; hyper or thermophiles (found on bottom of ocean)

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56

Photoautotrophs

cyanobacteria and green sulfurs

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57

Photoheterotrophs

purple non-sulfurs

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58

Enriched media

Extra care of nutrients to grow certain micro and are hard to grow

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59

Fastidious

organisms cannot make certain (exact) nutrients and hard to grow

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60

Chemically defined medium

complete chemical composition known

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61

Complex medium

contains extracts and digests of yeasts, meat, or plants; exact composition not known

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62

Selective media

inhibit unwanted, promote growth of organism of interest

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63

Enrichment cultures

promote growth of desired organism; only represents a fraction present

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64

Differential media

distinguish colonies of bacteria by color change

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65

Sterilization

fomite; removal/killing of ALL microbes; methods: (autoclave) Heat, Pressure, Filtration, and Chemical (sterilants); endospores and viruses

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66

Sanitization

fomite; reduce microbial load; heat or chemicals

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67

Disinfection

fomite; Inactivation/kill of microbes; vinegar and bleach; ≠ sterile

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68

Antisepsis

living tissue; hydrogen peroxide, iodine, witch hazel, rubbing alcohol

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69

Degerming

living tissue; washing hands, wiping with paper towel, etc.; soap and alcohol swab

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70

BSL-1

sink for hand washing and door to close off lab; nonpathogenic E. coli and B. subtilis

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71

BSL-2

UTA micro lab; BSL-1, PPE, self-closing door, eye-wash station, autoclave, or sterilizationS. aureus and Salmonella spp.; viruses: hepatitis, mumps, and measles

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72

BSL-3

BSL-1 and 2; respirator, bio safety cabinets, hands-free wash sink, 2 sets of doors, directional air flow; indigenous or "exotic" pathogens; M. tuberculosis and B. anthracis; viruses: west nile virus and HIV

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73

BSL-4

+BSL-3; full biohazard suit, change clothing on entry, shower on exit, decontaminate all material on exit, lab must have own air supply; "exotic" pathogens; viruses:

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74

Critical

must be sterile; items used inside body; sterile tissue or bloodstream; surgical instruments, catheters, IV fluids

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75

Semicritical

do not require high-level sterilization (membranous tissue, GI endoscope, RT equipment

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76

Noncritical

do not require sterilization; stethoscope, bed linens, BP cuffs)

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77

Decimal Reduction Time (DRT)

how much time it takes to kill 90% (1 log reduction) of population

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78

Dry Heat

incineration; direct application of high heat (>250°C); Bunsen burner and bacteria incinerator

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79

Moist Heat

penetrates cells with high temp in liquid/vapor; autoclave

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80

autoclave

raise temp of water increasing boiling temp (~121°C) by raising pressure to 15 psi (endospores and thermophiles)

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81

Pasteurization

"flash" heating foods to kill most microbes

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82

HTST

milk heated at 72°C for 15sec, then bottled and refrigerated

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83

UHT

milk heated at 138°C for 2 or more secs, then sealed in airtight containers for up to 90 days w/out refrigeration

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84

milkborne organisms killed by pasteurization

C. jejune, Coxiella burnetii, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli 0157:H7, M. tuberculosis, M. paratuberculosis, Salmonella spp. and Yevsinia enterocolitica

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85

Refrigeration and Freezing

-static

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86

Pascalization

high pressure used in food industry to kill microbes and prevent endospore formation (botulism)

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87

Desiccation

drying or dehydration; to preserve foods by removing water

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88

Lyophilization

freeze drying; rapid freezing then placed under vacuum

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89

ionizing radiation

enters into cells and disrupts molecular structures such as DNA (x-rays and gamma rays)

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90

non-ionizing radiation

doesn't penetrate glass, plastics, etc. can damage cells w/ direct exposure (UV irradiation)

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91

sonication

High frequency sound waves to disrupt cell structure

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92

filtration

use of barrier to physically separate microbes

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93

membrane filtration

removes microbes from liquid samples

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94

Phenolics

Denature proteins & membranes; triclosan(banned by FDA), lysol, and carbolic acid

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95

Heavy Metals

binds inhibits proteins; MSCsZ

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96

HM: Mercury

treated syphilis but banned due to neural toxicity

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97

HM: Silver

used today to treat burn wounds, pediatric ophthalmic nenatorum, and in antibiotics

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98

HM: Copper Sulfate

used as algicide to treat pools

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99

HM: Zinc

mouthwashes, calamine lotion, baby powder, argyria

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100

H: Iodine

oxidizes cellular components; commonly used as a iodophor (complex with organic molecule)

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