Unit 4 Bio

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Coined the term “cell” because they looked like tiny chambers

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Biology

9th

48 Terms

1

Coined the term “cell” because they looked like tiny chambers

Hooke

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2

Discovered bacteria from dental scrapings

Leeuwenhoek

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3

Said plants are made of cells

Schleiden

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4

Said animals were made from cells

Schwaan

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5

Said that cells came from division of existing cells

Virchow

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6

All living organisms are made up of cells Cells are the smallest unit of organization Cells come from preexisting cells

Cell theory

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7

Contain nucleus and membrane-bound organelles Unicellular or multicellular ex. plants and animals Mitochondria

Eukaryotic

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8

Do not contain nucleus and other membrane bound organelles Unicellular ex. bacteria archaea No mitochondria

Prokaryotic

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9

Have ribosomes DNA exists that relates to genes

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic

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10

Contains DNA of the cell. Control center of the cell.

Nucleus

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11

Controls what enters and leaves the cell

Cell Membrane

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12

Begins assembly of ribosomes

Nucleolus

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13

Creates polypeptide chains and protein. Factory of the cell.

Ribosome

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14

Proteins are assembled and transferred in and out of the cell.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

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15

Creates lipids for the cell membrane

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

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16

Modify, sort, and ship proteins and lipids. Post office of the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

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17

Makes ATP (energy). Powerhouse of the cell.

Mitochondria

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18

Cellular organelles that are composed of a lipid bilayer. Also metabolism and enzyme storage as well. Envelopes of the cell.

Vesicles

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19

Uses enzymes to break down old organelles and macromolecules. Garbage disposal of the cell.

Lysosome

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20

Cell wall, large central vacuole, and chloroplast

Organelles found only in Plant Cells

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21

Gives plant cells extra stability and structure

Cell Wall

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22

Stores water, salts, and carbohydrates. Kitchen of the cell.

Large Central Vacuole

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23

Captures energy from light for photosynthesis. Solar panels of the cell.

Chloroplast

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24

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Protein production; in particular for export out of the cell

Golgi apparatus Protein modification and export

Peroxisome Lipid Destruction; contains oxidative enzymes

Lysosome Protein destruction

Steps and organelles involved when a cell makes and exports a protein

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25

Controls what enters and exits the cell

Barrier keeping the constituents of the cell in and unwanted substances out

Gate allowing transport into the cell of essential nutrients and movement from the cell of waste products

Functions of the cell membrane

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26

Changes in structure and behavior of cell membrane under different temperatures Constant movement of those pieces (phospholipids)

Fluid mosaic mean/behave

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27

Water will leave the cell, and the cell will shrink

Hypertonic

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28

There is no net water movement, so there is no change in the size of the cell

Isotonic

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29

Water will enter the cell, and the cell will swell.

Hypotonic

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30

Passive transport

Type of Transport Uses no Energy

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31

Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis

Types of Passive Transport

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32

High-Low Concentration

Process in which solutes are passed through the concentration gradient in a solution across a semipermeable membrane

How oxygen and carbon dioxide travel across the membrane

Simple Diffusion

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33

Diffusion with the help of a transport protein

Charged ions are traveling through a cell membrane with the concentration gradient

ex: protein channel(tunnel) and carrier proteins(ferry)

Facilitated Diffusion

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34

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

Moves toward the solute to try and reach equilibrium

ex: absorption of water from soil

Osmosis

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35

Cell does use energy (low to high concentration), not random

Active movement

Against chemical gradient

Active Transport

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36

Active transport, takes in bulky material into a cell

Endocytosis

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37

Forces material out of the cell in bulk

Exocytosis

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38

Phagocytosis

Process by which white blood cells engulf a bacterium

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39

When a neuron is at rest, briefly explain the role of the Na+/K+ pump. What type of transport is this? What is the charge on the inside of the cell?

3 Na+ out and 2 k+ in; Active transport; Negative charge

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40

When an action potential is triggered (depolarization), briefly explain the role of the Na+ channels. What type of transport is this? What is the resulting charge on the inside of the cell?

Sodium channels open and Na+ comes in; Passive transport; Positive charge

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41

After an action potential during repolarization, briefly explain the role of the K+ channels. What type of transport is this? What is the resulting charge on the inside of the cell?

Sodium channels close and potassium channels open; Passive transport; Positive charge

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42

Brain and spinal cord

Parts of the Central Nervous System

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43

Autonomic nervous system (ANS): Controls involuntary bodily functions and regulates glands

Somatic nervous system (SNS): Controls muscle movement and relays information from ears, eyes and skin to the central nervous system.

Parts of the Peripheral Nervous System

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44

Sensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your body (periphery) into the central nervous system. Sensory involves the 5 senses. Motor neurons (motoneurons) carry signals from the central nervous system to the outer parts (muscles, skin, glands) of your body.

Difference between a sensory and a motor neuron

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45

Sodium

Na+

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Potassium

k+

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More solute out

Hypertonic

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48

More solute in

Hypotonic

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