AP PSYCH - UNIT 6 TERMS

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52 Terms

1

zygote

the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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2

embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 week after fertilization through the second month

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3

fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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4

teratogens

monster maker; agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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5

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking

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6

habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

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7

maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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8

schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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9

assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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10

accommodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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11

sensorimotor stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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12

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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13

preoperational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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14

conservation

the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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15

egocentrism

in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

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16

theory of mind

people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

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17

autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

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18

concrete operational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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19

formal operational stage

in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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20

stranger anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

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21

attachment

an emotional tie with another person

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22

critical period

an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

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23

imprinting

the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period

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24

temperament

a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

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25

basic trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy

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26

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the questions, “Who am I?”

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27

gender

the socially constructed roles and characteristics by which a culture defines male and female

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28

aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

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29

gender role

a set of expected behaviors for males and for females

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30

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

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31

gender identity

our sense of being male or female

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32

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

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33

gender typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

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34

transgender

an umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex

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35

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

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36

identity

our sense of self

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37

social identity

the “we” aspect of our self-concept

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38

intimacy

in Eriksons’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

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39

emerging adulthood

for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to mid-twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood

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40

X chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women (females have two, males have one; an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child)

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41

Y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in males (when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child)

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42

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones

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43

puberty

the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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44

primary sex characteristics

the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible (ovaries, testes, & external genitalia)

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45

secondary sex characteristics

nonreproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

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46

menarche

the first menstrual period

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47

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)

a life-threatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus; depletes the immune system, leaving the person vulnerable to infection

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48

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex, the other sex, or both sexes

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49

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduces declines

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50

cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

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51

longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

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52

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

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