AP Psych Unit 1

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What is Psychology


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104 Terms

What is Psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes


a set of questions, observations, hypotheses, studies, findings, and analysis


external actions that are observable

mental processes

internal processes (dreams, emotions, thoughts, and beliefs)

Who found structuralism

Wilhelm Wundt - Father of psych

what is structuralism?

early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

what is introspection

looking inward - based on self-reflection and self-reporting

why did structuralism fall out of favor

-required highly knowledgeable and verbally articulate people -can't be directly observed -unreliable -not credible

who is the founder of functionalism:

William James - father of American Psych - wrote principles of Psychology - Known for theory of Emotion

what is functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function and enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

key points of functionalism

-formed as a response to structuralism -seeks to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner -focuses on the purpose of consciousness and behavior -claimed that all behaviors and mental processes have evolved due to adaptation

who is Dorthea dix

advocate for mentally-ill pushed for treatment instead of imprisonment laid the foundation to remove the stigma of mental illness in the U.S.

who is Maru Whiton Calkins

-first woman to pursue PhD in Psychology -completed her dissertation in 1896, but Harvard refused to give a degree -APA's first female president

Margaret Floy Washburn

-first woman to earn PhD in psych -known for her work on animal behavior as well as theory on consciousness

who is Charles Darwin

-developed theories of evolution and natural selection

who is G. Stanley Hall

-established first psychology research lab in US

  • first president of APA -first PhD in psych

Biopsychosocial Approach

integrated view of the mind and behaviors that incorporates various levels of analysis and perspectives, and offers a more complete picture, includes biological, psychological, and socio-cultural influences

psychological influence

learned fears and other learned expectations emotional responses cognitive and perceptual interpretations attention to pain learning on past expectations expectations of pain

biological influences

genetic predispositions genetic mutations natural selection of adaptive psychology & behaviors genetic differences in endorphin production activity in spinal cord

sociocultural influences

presence of others cultural, societal, and family expectations peer and other group influences presence of others the empathy of other's pain cultural influences

biological contemporary psychology perspective

how the principles of biology can be applied to studying mental processes and behavior

evolutionary contemporary psychology perspective

how the natural selection of traits influences behavior and mental processes

behavioral genetics contemporary psychology perspective

how the interaction of genes and the environment influence behavior and mental processes

psychodynamic contemporary psychology perspective

how unconscious drives and conflicts behavior and mental processes

humanistic contemporary psychology perspective

how the journey for self-fulfillment and well-being influencesbehavior and mental processes

behavioral contemporary psychology perspective

how interactions with the environment produce learned responses

cognitive contemporary psychology perspective

how memories, concepts, and interpretations influence behavior, and cognitive processes

sociocultural contemporary psychology perspective

how do other people, cultures, and societies influence behavior and mental processes

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve problems


MD in medicine 7+ years in medical school, residency, + more training may council patients CAN prescribe medicine


PSyD or PhD in psych 5-7 years in school 2 year internship may council patients CAN'T prescribe medicine


Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders

who was the DSM published by

American Psychiatrist Association

what does DSM provide

common language and standard criteria

what does legal mean

a legal term not psychological or clinical term


the tendency to over estimate our abilities including knowledge

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe you were close after knowing outcome

Scientific Method

Theories Hypothesis Research and Observations


An explanation that organises data and predicts observations


a testable prediction often implied by a theory


repeating study to see if the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances


a hypothesis can be falsifiable if it's possible to conceive of an observation or an argument which could negate the hypothesis

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied to reveal universal principles

pros to case study

insight to specific cases that could possibly not be studied due to ethical reasons

cons of a case study

hard to generalize to large populations and some events can't be replicated due to ethics

prospective case study

individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes

retrospective case study

looking at historical information


a technique for asserting the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative - a random sample Must have a representative and random sampling from he population for generalization to be possible