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What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

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1

What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

Weak central government, inability to tax or regulate trade, no executive or judicial branches.

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2

What did the Declaration of Independence assert?

Colonies' right to self-governance, equality, unalienable rights.

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3

What were the concerns raised in Brutus 1?

Power of federal government, erosion of state sovereignty, individual liberties.

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4

What did MLK advocate for in his Letter from a Birmingham Jail?

Nonviolent civil disobedience, combat racial injustice.

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5

What does the Constitution outline?

Structure and powers of federal government, separation of powers, federal system.

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6

What does Federalist 10 discuss?

Problem of factions, benefits of a large, diverse republic.

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7

What does Federalist 51 emphasize?

Checks and balances, separation of powers between branches.

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8

What does Federalist 70 advocate for?

Strong, energetic executive branch, single president.

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9

What does Federalist 78 discuss?

Role of judiciary, judicial independence, power of judicial review.

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10

What does the 1st Amendment guarantee?

Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition.

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11

What does the 2nd Amendment protect?

The right to bear arms.

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12

What does the 3rd Amendment prohibit?

Quartering of soldiers in private homes during peacetime.

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13

What does the 4th Amendment protect against?

Unreasonable searches and seizures, requires search warrants.

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14

What does the 5th Amendment ensure?

Due process of law, protection against self-incrimination, protection against double jeopardy.

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15

What does the 6th Amendment guarantee?

Right to a fair and speedy trial, including the right to legal counsel.

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16

What does the 7th Amendment preserve?

Right to a jury trial in civil cases.

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17

What does the 8th Amendment prohibit?

Cruel and unusual punishment, excessive bail or fines.

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18

What does the 9th Amendment affirm?

Rights not mentioned in the Constitution are retained by the people.

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19

What does the 10th Amendment reserve?

Powers not delegated to the federal government to the states or the people.

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20

What does the 11th Amendment limit?

Lawsuits against states by citizens of other states.

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21

What does the 12th Amendment change?

Procedure for electing the President and Vice President.

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22

What does the 13th Amendment abolish?

Slavery in the United States.

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23

What does the 14th Amendment define?

Citizenship, guarantees equal protection under the law, prohibits states from depriving individuals of life, liberty, or property without due process.

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24

What does the 15th Amendment prohibit?

Denial of the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

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25

What does the 16th Amendment grant?

Congress the power to levy income taxes.

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26

What does the 17th Amendment establish?

Direct election of U.S. Senators by the people of each state.

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27

What does the 18th Amendment prohibit?

Manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages.

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28

What does the 19th Amendment grant?

Women the right to vote.

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29

What does the 20th Amendment set?

Dates for the inauguration of the President and the start of congressional terms.

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30

What does the 21st Amendment do?

Repeals the 18th Amendment, ending Prohibition (1933).

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31

What does the 22nd Amendment do?

Limits the President to two terms in office (1951).

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32

What does the 23rd Amendment do?

Grants the residents of Washington, D.C., the right to vote in presidential elections (1961).

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33

What does the 24th Amendment do?

Prohibits the use of poll taxes in federal elections (1964).

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34

What does the 25th Amendment do?

Outlines the presidential line of succession and procedures for presidential disability (1967).

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35

What does the 26th Amendment do?

Lowers the voting age to 18 (1971).

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36

What does the 27th Amendment do?

Prevents changes in congressional pay from taking effect until the next term (1992).

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37

What does Article I establish?

Legislative branch of federal government

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38

What does Article II establish?

Executive branch of federal government

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39

What does Article III establish?

Judicial branch of federal government

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40

What does Article IV address?

Relationships between states and federal government

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41

What does Article V describe?

Process for amending the Constitution

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42

What does Article VI establish?

Supremacy of Constitution, federal laws, and treaties

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43

What does Article VII contain?

Procedure for ratifying the Constitution

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44

What is the legislative branch composed of?

House of Representatives and Senate

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45

What is the executive branch composed of?

President and Vice President

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46

What is the judicial branch composed of?

Supreme Court and other federal courts

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47

What does Article IV recognize?

State laws and process for admitting new states

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48

What is the Commerce Clause?

Grants Congress authority to regulate commerce among states.

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49

Where is the Commerce Clause found?

Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the Constitution.

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50

What is the Elastic Clause?

Grants Congress power to make laws necessary and proper.

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51

Where is the Elastic Clause found?

Article I, Section 8, Clause 18 of the Constitution.

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52

What does the Elastic Clause provide Congress with?

Flexibility and adaptability to changing circumstances.

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53

Where is the Amendment Process outlined?

Article V of the Constitution.

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54

How can an amendment be proposed?

Two-thirds majority vote in Congress or national constitutional convention.

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55

How is an amendment ratified?

By three-fourths of state legislatures or state ratifying conventions.

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56

What is the significance of the Commerce Clause?

Shaped federal authority over economic and commercial activities.

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57

What is the significance of the Elastic Clause?

Allows Congress to enact laws not explicitly listed in the Constitution.

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