Physiology Lecture Exam 2

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Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?

A) Fight or flight responses B) Regulation of smooth muscle function C) Regulation of heart rate D) Functions related to "rest and digest" E) Skeletal muscle contraction

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1

Which of the following is not a function of the autonomic nervous system?

A) Fight or flight responses B) Regulation of smooth muscle function C) Regulation of heart rate D) Functions related to "rest and digest" E) Skeletal muscle contraction

E) Skeletal Muscle Contraction

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2

Physiological functions that occur during an emergency situation ("fight or flight") are controlled by the ________ nervous system. One of these functions is _______.

A) Parasympathetic; Pupil Dilation B) Parasympathetic; increased blood flow to the visceral organs C) Sympathetic; increased heart rate D) Sympathetic; decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles

C) Sympathetic; increased heart rate

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3

When a sensor stimulus arrives at a sensory receptor cell, the membrane potential of the sensory receptor cell changes by a variable amount (rather than the same amount each time) This variable change in the membrane potential is called ________.

A) graded potential B) thermoreception C) phasic response D) afferent input E) action potential

A) graded potential

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4

When a substance that can be described as bitter on the tongue, the specific chemical in that substance that causes a response is ____. That chemical causes a response in the taste cell by doing what?

A) Na+; diffusing through ion channels in taste cell B) Sugar: binding to membrane receptors on the taste cell C) Quinine: binding to membrane receptors on the taste cell D) H+; diffusing through ion channels in taste cell E) Amino acids; binding to membrane receptors on the taste cell

C) Quinine: binding to membrane receptors on the taste cell

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5

In the tongue, each taste bud consists of several taste cells

A) True B) False

A) True

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6

In the olfactory system, odorants bind to membrane proteins. In what cells are these membrane proteins located? A) olfactory bulb cells B) olfactory receptor neurons E) otolith cells D) nasal neurons B) olfactory tract

B) olfactory receptor neurons

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7

If you stand up from a chair and your head moves straight up vertically while you stand up, that is considered angular movement of the head.

A) True B) False

B) False

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8

Choose the incorrect statement about the vestibular system

A) Each semicircular canal contains a cupula B) The sensory stimulus is mechanical C) The otolith organs sense angular movement D) Sensation of head position in space is important for functioning in the environment E) There are hair cells in the vestibular system

C) The otolith organs sense angular movement

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9

During rotation of the head, the ______ within the _____ bends, resulting in transduction

A) gelatin; otolith organs B) cupula; semicircular canal C) hair cells; otolith organs D) utricle: semicircular Canal

B) cupula; semicircular canal

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10

Choose the correct statement about the auditory system.

A) Vibration of the malleus causes vibrations in the round window. B) The organ of Corti is in the tympanic membrane. C) All auditory structures are in the middle car. D) Movement of Nluid in the cochlea causes movement of the ossicles E) Lower frequencies of sound cause movement in the apical cochlea.

E) Lower frequencies of sound cause movement in the apical cochlea.

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11

If a sound has a low frequency, that mean it is a soft sound rather than a loud sound. A) True B) False

B) False

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12

In the auditory system, when the fluid in the cochlea moves, what does this cause?

A) The tectorial membrane is depolarized. B) A sound wave is created. C) Rotational movement of the head is sensed. D) The hair cells of the organ of Corti bend. E The round window shears across the oval window.

D) The hair cells of the organ of Corti bend.

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13

Which tunic of the eye contains the iris?

A) fibrous tunic B) sclera C) choroid D) retina E) uvea

C) choroid

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14
  1. The human visual system can only transduce wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

A) True B) False

A) true

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15

Which photoreceptors are most responsive when a person is in a dark environment?

A) rods B) hair cells C) cones D) bipolar cells E) foveal cells

A) Rods

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16

In the eye, ciliary muscle is _____ when a near object is viewed.

A) contracted B) relaxed C) rounded D) dilated

A) contracted

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17

When the ciliary muscle relaxes, there is _____ tension on the zonular fibers. This results in a flattened lens to focus objects that are _____.

A) less; close up B) less; distant C) more; close up D) more: distant

D) more: distant

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18

The L cones are most responsive or sensitive to which color of light?

A) black B) blue C) green D) red

D) red

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19

In which structure are the rods and cones located?

A) pupil B) retina C) optic nerve D) brain E) lens

B) retina

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20

A skeletal muscle cell is called a ______.

A) muscle fiber B) myofilament C) fascicle D) myofibril E) muscle

A) muscle fiber

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21

Myosin and actin are myofilaments

A) True B) False

A) true

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22

How does a motor neuron excite a skeletal muscle fiber?

A) It hyperpolarizes the muscle fiber. B) It releases acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction. C) It slides across the muscle fiber. D) It causes an action potential in the axon of the muscle fiber. E) It releases calcium into the neuromuscular junction.

B) It releases acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction.

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23

Which of the following is an incorrect description of the sarcomere in skeletal muscle?

A) It contains A bands and I bands. B) It has a striated appearance. C) There is a Z line in the center of the sarcomere. D It is the contractile unit of skeletal muscle. E) it contains myofilaments.

C) There is a Z line in the center of the sarcomere.

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24

In skeletal muscle, contraction occurs after the latent period.

A) True B) False

A) True

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25

In skeletal muscle, when _____ binds to troponin C, tropmyosin is move out of its blocking position.

A) troponin T B) calcium C) myosin D) actin E) a cross-bridge

B) Calcium

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26

In skeletal muscle, cross-bridges form between what two molecules?

A) actin and myosin B) actin and troponin C C) tropomyosin and troponin D) troponin C and myosin E) tropomyosin and ATP

A) actin and myosin

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27

When a muscle fiber is depolarized, the action potentials travel along what structure?

A) sarcoplasmic reticulum B) myosin C) sarcomere D) Z line E) transverse tubules

E) transverse tubules

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28

In skeletal muscle, which structure stores and releases calcium ions?

A) sarcolemma B) transverse tubule C) sarcoplasm D) sarcoplasmic reticulum E) cell nucleus

D) sarcoplasmic reticulum

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29

In skeletal muscle, which process occurs immediately after the ryanodine receptors open?

A) The DHP receptors open. B) Acetylcholine binds to nicotinic ACh receptors in the sarcolemma. C) Ca++ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. D) Action potentials travel along the transverse tubules. E) Na++ channels in the sarcolemma open.

C) Ca++ is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

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30

When there is increased stimulation (i.e. stronger stimulation) of muscle which results in greater muscle tension, this is called A) twitch B) summation C) recruitment D) tetanus

C) recruitment

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31

Which type of skeletal muscle fiber is slowest to reach maximal tension?

A) Type I B) Type IIX C) Type MIA

A) Type I

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32

Which of the following is the best example of an isotonic contraction?

A) holding a weight in a steady position B) pushing constantly against a concrete wall D) balancing on tiptoes E) running up a hill

E) running up a hill

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33

According to the length-tension relationship for skeletal muscle, the optimal length for generation of tension is close to the muscle's resting length.

A) True B) False

A) True

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34

In cardiac muscle, depolarization is due to entry of Na+ and Ca++ into the muscle cell.

A) True B) False

A) True

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35

In smooth muscle, what does Cat+ bind to, to activate muscle contraction?

A) troponin C B) actin C) myosin D) calmodulin

D) calmodulin

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36

A chemical signal that travels through the bloodstream to a target organ or cell is called a _____.

A) hormone B) neurotransmitter C) gland D) afferent signal E) solute

A) hormone

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37

Where is the adrenal gland?

A) in the brain B) above the kidney C) in the neck D) in the pancreas

B) above the kidney

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38

What is the name for a hormone that directly stimulates the secretion of another hormone?

A) neurotransmitter B) ion C) receptor D) hormone 3 E) tropic hormone

E) tropic hormone

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39

ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and oxytocin are released into the bloodstream by which structure?

A) thyroid gland B) hypothalamus C) posterior pituitary gland D) anterior pituitary gland E) adrenal gland

C) posterior pituitary gland

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40

What is the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract?

A) It is a group of axons that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland. B) It is a group of axons that transports hormones from the posterior pituitary gland to the hypothalamus. C) It is a capillary network that transport hormones from the hypothalamus to the target organ. D) It is a capillary network that transport hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland.

A) It is a group of axons that transports hormones from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland.

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41

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is secreted by the _______, and it directly stimulates the secretion of ______. A) hypothalamus; corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRIN) B) adrenal cortex; cortisol C) anterior pituitary gland; cortisol D) posterior pituitary gland; corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRHI) E) posterior pituitary gland; glucocorticoids

C) anterior pituitary gland; cortisol

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42

Somatostatin is secreted by the ______. It inhibits ______.

A) hypothalamus; secretion of growth hormone (GH) B) anterior pituitary gland; milk production C) thyroid gland; secretion of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TREI) D) adrenal cortex; the stress response

A) hypothalamus; secretion of growth hormone (GH)

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43

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by the

A) thyroid gland B) hypothalamus C) gonads D) anterior pituitary gland

D) anterior pituitary gland

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44

What does increased secretion of prolactin cause?

A) inhibition of growth B) secretion of testosterone C) growth D) milk production E) synthesis of gametes

D) milk production

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45

During stress, there is increased secretion of cortisol from the adrenal cortex.

A) True B) False

A) True

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46

Stress can include physical trauma.

A) True B) False

A) True

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47

Iodine deficiency can result in A) increased synthesis of thyroid hormone B) hyperthyroidism C) decreased synthesis of T3 and T4 D) growth of the hypothalamus E) Weight loss

C) decreased synthesis of T3 and T4

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48

During the synthesis of thyroid hormone, the MIT (monoiodotyrosine) molecule results from the bonding of ________ to thyroglobulin.

A) one iodide ion B) two iodide ions C) DIT (diiodotyrosine) D) TA

A) one iodide ion

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49

Heat intolerance is symptom of _______.

A) hypothyroidism B) hyperthyroidism

B) hyperthyroidism

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