Protostomes

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Protosomes

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Tags and Description

Biology

48 Terms

1

Protosomes

large group of bilaterally symmetrical animals

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2

Protosome

initial invagination (blastopore) becomes mouth in formation of gut

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3

Bilateria

bilaterally symmetrical triploblasts. Many appear in Cambrian explosion

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4

Invertebrate bilaterates

95% of animal species

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5

Ecdysozoans

synapomorphy: extracellular protective exoskeleton (hard) or cuticle (soft). Must molt for growth (Ecdysis)

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6

Roundworms (Phylum Nematoda)

unsegmented. psuedocoelomates. complete digestive tract. hydrostatic skeleton. longitudinal muscles only. cuticle with collagen. gas exchange through body wall

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Nematoda

mostly free living, some parasitic in humans (Ascaris).

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8

Arthropoda

Features:

segmented bodies organized in regions called tagmata.

exoskeleton made of chitin. allows for muscle attachment.

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9

Exoskeleton allows for

muscle attachment. protect from predation and desiccation. in crustaceans strengthened by CaCo3

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Paired, jointed appendages

enable movement of rigid body (“jointed foot”)

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11

Physiology of Arthropoda

coelomates

open circulatory system

complete digestive tract

complex mouthparts for food

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12

Land adaptations of protostomes

Live in moist soils/habitats. Gills/lungs inside body. waxy layer on body surface (cuticle), (insects).

without skeleton limited in size

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13

Challenges of living on land

Desiccation of body

Respiratory gas membranes must be moist

Supporting the body without water.

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14

Modular body plans

small set of elements used to create a body. can be rearranged in different ways to create a body. by changing expression of existing genes

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Genetic toolkit

share common toolkit of genes, especially genes responsible for development. differential gene expression

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16

Lophophore

ciliated feeding structure. ex. barnacle foot

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17

Trochophore

ciliated larval stage

<p>ciliated larval stage</p>
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18

Lophotrochozoa

includes phylums Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, and Annelida. no molting and grow incrementally.

<p>includes phylums Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, and Annelida. no molting and grow incrementally.</p>
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19

Phylum Platyhelminthes

flatworms (flukes, turbellarians, tapeworms)

flattened body plan to allow gas exchange

gastrovascular cavity

acoelomates (no body cavity)

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20

Which phylum contains acoelomates?

Platyhelminthes

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21

Which phylums have incomplete digestive tracts?

Platyhelminthes and Cnidarians

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22

Phylum Annelida (Lophotrochozoa)

earthworms + relatives, marine annelids (free-living), and leeches (ectoparasites)

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23

Phylum Mollusca (Lophotrochozoa)

coelomates (greatly reduced coelom)

Foot, visceral mass and mantle specialized modular body plan

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Foot

large muscle at base of clam

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Visceral mass

houses internal organs, digestive, reproductive and excretory organs in mollusks

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Mantle

secrete shell.

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Radula

rasp-like tongue

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28

Mollusks have

open circulatory system and a complete digestive tract

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29

Class Bivalvia

clams, mussels, scallops and oysters. 2 hinged valves form shell. foot is digging organ. and they are filter feeders

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Class Gastropoda

snails slugs and relatives. most have one part shells or none

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Class Cephalopoda

squids, octopuses, chambered nautilus, and cuttlefish

foot = tentacles

no or reduced shell

closed circulatory system

complex camera eyes.

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Tardigrada

tardigrades. segmented bodies and limbs. can withstand hot and cold, extreme pressure and low O2

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Onychophorans

velvet worms sister taxa to arthropods.

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Class Chilopoda (Arthropoda>Myriapoda)

carnivorous. one pair of legs per segment (two legs in a segment). has venomous claws/fangs

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Class Diplopoda ( Arthropoda>Myriapoda)

detritivores. two pairs of legs per segment (four legs in a segment)

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36

Subphylum Chelicerata

chelicerae (appendages) can be used in feeding, defense, sensory reception etc. four pairs walking legs, and one pair of pedipalps

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Class Arachnida (Arthropoda>Chelicerata)

spiders, ticks, mites and scorpions. two major tagmata, Cephalothorax and abdomen. fang tipped chelicerae, some are predators and some ectoparasites

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38

Which arthropod classes have a cephalothorax and abdomen?

Arachnida and Crustaceans

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39

Subphylum Pancrustacea

insects + crustaceans

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40

Crustaceans (Arthropoda>Pancrustacea)

mostly aquatic, land example pillbug. major component of zooplankton (ex. copepods and naupilus larva)

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Crustacean body

2 pairs of antennae. biramous (branched) appendages, two tagmata: cephalothorax and abdomen. reinforced exoskeleton of CaCO3, like with barnacles

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42

Insecta (Arthropoda>Pancrustacea)

most can fly. head, thorax and abdomen. 1 pair of antennae (head)

1 pair of mandibles (head)

3 pairs of walking legs (thorax)

1-2 pairs of wings. (thorax)

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43

What class has a head, thorax and abdomen as its tagmata?

Insecta.

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44

Metamorphosis

morphological transformation from larva to adult

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45

Hemimetabolous insects

incomplete metamorphosis. egg>nymph>adult

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Holometabolus insects

complete metamorphosis. egg>larva>pupa>adult

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47

Lepidopterans

complete metamorphosis. moths and butterflies. larva resemble bird droppings

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48

Hymenopterans

ants, bees and wasps. highly social insects. undergo complete metamorphosis

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