AP Euro Unit 1 Vocab

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patron

a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity

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humanism

A focus on human nature and achievements- movement away from the scholasticism and theology of middles ages and church

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secularism

Refocus of education on the humanities (philosophy, law, speech, language, logic) the principle of separation of the state from religious institutions (focus on the here and now and material pleasures rather than the afterlife)

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Mannerism

The style of painting and drawing practiced by artists in Northern Europe during the early part of the sixteenth century

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Reconquista

Conquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella

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inquisition

Enforcement of Catholicism by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Antisemitism (one of largest populations in Europe) Loss of skilled workers

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vernacular

common language

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Civic Humanism

The belief that individuals owe a service to their community and its government

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Baroque

A style in art and music lasting from 1600 to 1750 characterized by the use of drama and motion to create heightened emotion, especially prevalent in Catholic countries

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Concordat of Bologna

Pope to receive all income made by Catholic Church in France French kings may select their bishops and abbots

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Court of Star Chamber

unfair trials (convict nobles of crimes) helps reduce noble power

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Nepotism

Appointing friends/relatives to positions

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indulgence

A document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, widely believed to bring forgiveness of all sins

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Act of Supremacy

Parliment declares Henry supreme head of church in England Dissolves Catholic monasteries Still fairly Catholic but allows for divorce

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Council of Trent

Will not change- salvation comes from faith and good works, 7 sacraments need to be followed, authority comes from the bible and Catholic authorities) Reform abuses of church practices Take action against Hersey (creation of Jesuits and prohibit books)

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Jesuit Order

To counter reformations Educate (universities) Convert non-believers and stamp out hersey

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Huguenot

Growing Calvinist population in France were called

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Politique

Political concerns higher than religious concerns

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Edict of Nantes

Catholicism is offical religion of France Protestants(Huguenots) will be tolerated under most circumstances (have church in countrysides and can worship in the privacy of their own homes)

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Peace of Augsburg

settlement of Charles V amdthe Lutheran Princes Whoever reigns, his religion (has to be either Catholic or Lutheran

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Defenestration of Prague

Incident of Bohemian resistance to Habsburg authority that preceded the beginning of the Thirty Years War with the throwing of catholic officals out of a window in prague.

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Edict of Restitution

Return of land by Protestants Protestants given rights except Lutherans who were deprived of religious/political rights (attempts to restore peace)

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Caravel

Light and maneuverable ships

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Moriscos

Muslims in Spain who had converted to Christianity Skilled workers

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Treaty of Tordesillas

An agreement between Spain and Portugal, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered land in the east of the line would belong to Portugal

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Encomienda System

Spanish system intended to employ natives as labor in exchange for food, shelter, and Christianization

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Medici

A family that turned Florence into banking and cultural center of Europe. Double entry bookkeeping and letters of credit and bills of exchange

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Francesco Petrarch

Father of humanism- recovery and use of classical texts would bring Golden Age of intellectual achievement

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Baldassare Castiglione

Wrote the Courtier- train and fashion young men into ideal gentlemen spread humanism to England and France

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Nicole Machiavelli

Invented Civil Humanism introduced new concepts of the state: stressed the need for strong ruler to achieve political unity (not ruled by church institutions or self proclaimed monarchy) Based on Greek and Roman political institutions ->politically engaged citizenry Wrote The Prince-practical guide to politics and had secular views

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Desiderius Erasmus

Responsible for the translation of bible in Greek Wrote The Praise of Folly-addressed issues within church that needed to be fixed wrote The Education of a Christian Prince- formation of a rulers character through study or classics and bible

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Thomas More

Wrote Utopia (revival of Plato's Republic)- ideal society with emphasis on education (especially for women), social equity, and rationality

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Johann Gutenburg

German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and first to use a printing press

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Ferdinand and Isabella

Spain's king and queen and funded Christopher Columbus

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John Wycliffe

(England) Final authority is Bible (not pope) Must read Bible themselves->translated to English If not mention in the Bible, then must not do it

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John Tetzel

Preacher who sold indulgences to raise money for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica

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Henry VIII

"Defender of Faith" Had six wives

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Mary I

First daughter of Henry VIII Second ruler of England Makes England Catholic (Bloody Mary-leads to growth of Puritans)

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Elizabeth I

Second daughter of Henry VIII Third ruler of England Comes to power after Mary (religious settlements with Catholics) Defeats Spanish Armada

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Edward VI

First son of Henry VII First ruler of England Church becomes more Protestant

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Charles V

was ruler of both HRE and Spanish empire Devoted Catholic, and sought to stop Protestantism

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Gustavus Aldolphus

Lutheran King of Sweden Invaded HRE Father of modern warfair

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Cardinal Richelieu

Wants to weaken Habsburg and gain power (no intrest in weakening religion) Declared war on Spain after Adolphus dies supported by Sweden

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Prince Henry II

sponsored voyages

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Vasco da Gama

1st voyager to India

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