science unit 8 vocab

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Wind

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Wind

the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure

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air pressure

force per unit area exerted on a surface by the weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth

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Coriolis effect

the apparent curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to Earth's rotation

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global winds

the movement of air over Earth's surface in patterns that are worldwide

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Jet streams

narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow from west to east between 7 km and 16 km above Earth's surface

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local winds

the movement of air over short distances

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ocean currents

streamlike movements of water

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surface currents

ocean currents that occur at or near the surface of the ocean and are caused by wind

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deep currents

movements of ocean water far below the surface

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convection

transfer of heat through a liquid or gas

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convection current

the movement of matter due to density differences

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upwelling

the process in which winds cause warm surface currents to move away from the shore and the warm surface water is then replaced by cold, nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean

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density

the amount of matter in a given space

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salinity

a measure of the amount of dissolved salts or solids in a liquid

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continental deflection

when surface currents meet continents causing them to change direction

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evaporation

when a liquid is heated and changes to a gas; causes ocean water's salinity to increase

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sea breeze

a type of breeze that occurs during the day when air above land becomes warmer than air above water causing colder, denser air over the water to flow toward the land and push the warm air over the land upward

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land breeze

a type of breeze that occurs at night when cooler air on land causes a higher pressure zone over the land so wind blows from land to water

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valley breeze

a type of breeze that occurs during the day when the sun warms the air along the mountain slopes faster than the air on the valleys causing uneven heating which results in areas of lower pressure near the mountain tops; the pressure difference causes the air to flow from the valley up the slopes of the mountains.

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mountain breeze

a type of breeze that occurs during the night when the air along the mountain slopes cools and moves down the valley

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