Topic 3 - Membranes - Biology 241 - University of Calgary

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• Molecules that tend to repel, not absorb, or not dissolve/mix with or by water.

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• Molecules that tend to repel, not absorb, or not dissolve/mix with or by water.

Hydrophobic

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• Molecules that tend to be attracted to, absorb, or dissolve/mix with or by water.

Hydrophilic

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• Triglycerides. • Phospholipids. • Sterols.

What are the three main biological lipids?

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• Energy storage.

What is the function of triglycerides?

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• Hydrocarbon chain. • Carboxyl group at the end of the chain.

What makes up a fatty acids structure? (2)

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• Cannot absorb anymore hydrogen atoms in its carbon chain; commonly found in animal fats. • No double bonds.

Saturated Fatty Acid (2)

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• Can absorb additional hydrogen atoms; found in vegetable oils. • Has a double bond.

Unsaturated Fatty Acid (2)

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• 3 fatty acids. • Glycerol anchor.

What makes up a triacylglycerols structure? (2)

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• Charged molecule. • Phosphate. • Glycerol. • 2 fatty acids.

What makes up a phospholipids structure?

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• Charged molecule. • Phosphate. • Glycerol.

What makes up a phospholipids head group?

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• 2 fatty acids.

What makes up a phospholipids tails?

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• False.

A phospholipids head groups repels water, true or false?

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• True.

A phospholipids tails repel water, true or false?

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• Tight packing between them. • Less fluidity. • Restricted movement.

What are the characteristics of saturated phospholipid fatty acid tails?

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• Looser packing between them. • More fluidity. • More movement.

What are the characteristics of unsaturated phospholipid fatty acid tails?

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• Regulates transport in and out of the cell.

What does the cell membrane do?

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• Membrane.

Which part of a cell is commonly known for the following:

• Communication • Chemical Reactions

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• Selective.

What type of permeability do membranes have?

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• Allows some molecules to pass through the membrane.

Selective Permeability

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• Yes.

Is it possible for lipids and proteins to coexist in a membrane?

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B) Laterally.

Which way do lipids and proteins diffuse in a membrane?

A) Diagonally B) Laterally C) Horizontally D) They don't diffuse across the membrane

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• Protein.

Transport involves what types of channels and carriers?

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• Involves enzymes and the binding of substrates to enzymes.

Enzymatic Activity

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• Involves a hormone that binds to a receptor.

Signal Transduction

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• Attachment points for cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.

Attachment/Recognition

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• Junctions - Connect and join two cells together. • Enzymes - Fixing to membranes localizes metabolic pathways. • Transport - Facilitated diffusion and active transport. • Recognition - Markers for cellular identification. • Attachment - Attachment points for cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. • Transduction - Receptors for peptide hormones.

JETRAT

(I found this online and thought it would help to remember the different types of membrane protein functions)

<p>(I found this online and thought it would help to remember the different types of membrane protein functions)</p>
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27

• Short fatty acid tails. • Unsaturated fatty acids. • Higher temperature. • Sterols.

What factors increase the fluidity of a membrane?

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• They change the strength of van der Waals forces.

How do short fatty acid tails increase a membranes fluidity?

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• Sterols.

What factor both increases and decreases the fluidity of a membrane?

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• To prevent freezing, sterols stop phospholipids from packing too tightly together. • To prevent melting, sterols fill in gaps between phospholipids.

How do sterols regulate membrane fluidity (for both preventing freezing and melting)?

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• More solutes can pass through the bilayer more quickly.

If fluid membranes are "leaky" what happens?

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• Fewer solutes are able to pass through the membranes more slowly.

Why are viscous membranes better barriers?

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• Small, uncharged, barely polar molecules.

What can diffuse across a lipid bilayer?

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• Large, charged, polar molecules. • Ions.

What cannot diffuse across a lipid bilayer? (2)

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• Maintain homeostasis. • Cells live in dynamic environments. • Allows for concentrations of molecules on the inside that are different from the outside. • Transport of molecules is regulated by cells.

Why do cells need a selective barrier? (4)

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• An area of high concentration distributes evenly to an area of lower concentration.

Diffusion

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• The concentration gradient (high in entropy).

Where does the energy in diffusion come from?

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• Diffusion of water from a low solute to a high solute.

Osmosis

<p>Osmosis</p>
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• Capability of a solution to modify the volume of cells by altering their water content.

Tonicity

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• No net movement of water, causing the cell to not change in size or shape.

Isotonic Conditions

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• Water diffuses out of the cell, causing shrinkage.

Hypertonic Conditions

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• Water diffuses into the cell, causing swelling.

Hypotension Conditions

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• Transport of a solute through diffusion.

Passive Transport: Simple Diffusion

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• Moves down or with its concentration gradient. • Powered by potential energy in the concentration of the gradient. • A greater concentration gradient = greater rate of movement.

What are the characteristics of passive transport (simple diffusion)? (3)

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• Involve protein carriers to help carry large/charged/polar molecules into and out of the membrane.

Passive Transport: Facilitated Diffusion

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• Moves down with the concentration gradient. • Direction of transport is reversible. • Rate of transportation depends on concentration gradient. • Substrate specific.

What are the characteristics of passive transport (facilitated diffusion)? (4)

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• Bind a single solute and transport it across the lipid bilayer.

Carrier Proteins

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• Form hydrophilic channels in the membrane which water and ions can move across.

Channel Proteins

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• They move solutes away from equilibrium (low energy state).

How do cells establish a concentration gradient?

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• ATP.

In order for cells to establish a concentration gradient, what molecule is needed?

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• Involves specific protein pumps that cross the membrane and moves solutes up (against) their concentration gradient.

Primary Active Transport

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• ATPO.

What does the transporter pump use in primary active transport?

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• Chemical gradients. • Electrochemical gradients.

What types of gradients do transporter pumps generate? (2)

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• Specific protein pumps that move solutes up their concentration gradient. • Powered by the energy released as different solutes move down its concentration gradient.

Secondary Active Transport Pumps (2)

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• Both solutes move in the same physical direction.

Symporters

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• Solutes move in opposite physical direction.

Antiporters

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• Having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts.

Amphiphatic

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• A type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

Integral Proteins

<p>Integral Proteins</p>
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• Interact with the surface of the lipid bilayer of cell membranes.

Peripheral Proteins

<p>Peripheral Proteins</p>
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