bio 12 unit 1

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<p>structural isomer</p>

structural isomer

<p>structural isomer</p>
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<p>structural isomer</p>

structural isomer

<p>structural isomer</p>
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<p>cis-trans isomer</p>

cis-trans isomer

<p>cis-trans isomer</p>
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<p>enantiomer</p>

enantiomer

<p>enantiomer</p>
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<p>hydroxyl group</p>

hydroxyl group

<p>hydroxyl group</p>
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<p>carbonyl group</p>

carbonyl group

<p>carbonyl group</p>
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<p>carboxyl group</p>

carboxyl group

<p>carboxyl group</p>
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any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals

<p>ketone</p>

ketone

<p>ketone</p>
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the chemical group -CHO

<p>aldehyde group</p>

aldehyde group

<p>aldehyde group</p>
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<p>carboxyl group ionized</p>

carboxyl group ionized

<p>carboxyl group ionized</p>
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<p>sulfhydryl group</p>

sulfhydryl group

<p>sulfhydryl group</p>
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<p>phosphate group</p>

phosphate group

<p>phosphate group</p>
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<p>amino group</p>

amino group

<p>amino group</p>
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<p>amino group ionized</p>

amino group ionized

<p>amino group ionized</p>
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polymers resulting from the removal of water

<p>dehydration</p>

dehydration

<p>dehydration</p>
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a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce monomers

<p>hydrolysis</p>

hydrolysis

<p>hydrolysis</p>
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bonding carbon of one sugar to an oxygen that binds to another sugar

<p>glycosidic linkage</p>

glycosidic linkage

<p>glycosidic linkage</p>
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maltose

<p>glucose+sucrose-&gt; ? (draw)</p>

glucose+sucrose-> ? (draw)

<p>glucose+sucrose-&gt; ? (draw)</p>
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many OH (hydroxyl) groups and one carbonyl group

carbohydrate functional group

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  • simple sugars ending in "ose" ex: ketose, aldose, fructose, glucose e.c.t

monosaccharide examples

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CH2O

monosaccharide ratio

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they are structural isomers

relationship between glucose and fructose

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starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen e.c.t

polysaccharide examples

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extra glucose is DEHYDRATED and turned into polymer starch and stored in roots

how and where do plants store energy

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food is turned into monomers to use, unsed glucose turns into glycogen and stored.

how do animals store excess carb?

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hydrophobic due to non polar nature

lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

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  • cushion and protect

  • part of membrane

  • hormolne regulators

  • energy dense

what do lipids do

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  • long carbon skeleton

  • carboxyl group

  • saturated = single bonds

  • unsaturated= double bonds

<p>fatty acid (carboxylic acid) components</p>

fatty acid (carboxylic acid) components

<p>fatty acid (carboxylic acid) components</p>
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another name for fat

<p>triacyglycerol draw</p>

triacyglycerol draw

<p>triacyglycerol draw</p>
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  • 3 fatty acids and glyceride

fat monomers

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  • any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base

  • has a phosphate group

  • forms bilayer

  • tail=non polar

  • head= polar

phospholipid

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  • regulators

  • 4 carbon rings

steriods

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  • work as enzymems catalizing reactions

  • transport things (hemoglobin oxygen)

  • immune system

  • cell structure

  • muscles

  • communication between cells

protein functions

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  • organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group

  • monomer

  • asymmetrical carbon

amino acid

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the simplest amino acid found in proteins and the principal amino acid in sugar cane

<p>glycine</p>

glycine

<p>glycine</p>
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a crystalline amino acid that occurs in many proteins

<p>alanine</p>

alanine

<p>alanine</p>
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a sweetish crystalline amino acid involved in the synthesis by the body of cysteine

<p>serine</p>

serine

<p>serine</p>
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an amino acid containing sulfur that is found in most proteins; oxidizes on exposure to air to form cystine

<p>cysteine</p>

cysteine

<p>cysteine</p>
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end of amino acid that has amino group

N terminus

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end of amino acid with carboxyl group

c terminus

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  • order that amino acids appear on a chain

primary structure

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  • hydrogen bonds between parts of backbone

  • creates pleated sheets or helix

  • carboxyl groups attract to amino groups on diffrent parts of chain

secondary structure

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  • attraction between the side chains

  • SH side groups attract eachother to form disulfhyde bonds

  • np groups attract to p groups

tertiary structure

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  • 2+ polypeptides joining and twisting together ex:hemoglobin

quaternary structure

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<p>glycerol draw</p>

glycerol draw

<p>glycerol draw</p>
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bond between amino acids

<p>polypeptide bond draw + define</p>

polypeptide bond draw + define

<p>polypeptide bond draw + define</p>
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<p>phosphodiester bond</p>

phosphodiester bond

<p>phosphodiester bond</p>
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  • adenine

  • gaumine

<p>purine name + draw</p>

purine name + draw

<p>purine name + draw</p>
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  • urisil

  • cytosine

  • tymine

<p>pyrimidine</p>

pyrimidine

<p>pyrimidine</p>
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a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids

<p>deoxyribose</p>

deoxyribose

<p>deoxyribose</p>
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<p>ribose</p>

ribose

<p>ribose</p>
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