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Iberian Peninsula/ Iberian style city

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1

Iberian Peninsula/ Iberian style city

This is the landmass surrounded on 3 sides by water where the countries of Spain and Portugal are located. The city style is laid out on a grid pattern with a central plaza where there is a Catholic church and the government buildings.

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2

Urban

This is a term for city living.  Rural = country and farm country, and suburban is the area in between urban and rural.

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3

Caribbean

This is the sea south of the United States and North of South America.  The Greater Antilles = islands in the Caribbean like Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica.

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4

Encomienda System:

This was how the Spanish settled and took the land in Latin America.  The king gave land and the indigenous people on it to a guy called an encomendero.  The encomendero could use the land and people any way they wanted. The possibility for abuse was great.

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5

Bartolomé de Las Casas

He was a priest who rode with Columbus.  He became the first voice for justice for the Native Americans in Latin America.

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6

Conquistador

A Spanish soldier/explorer who initially claimed the areas of “New Spain” for the Spanish crown/the king of Spain.  They were ruthless which led to success. Many were not successful at home and were therefore hoping to make a name for themselves.

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7

Depopulation

When a great number of the people die off in a region.

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8

Population Vacuum

This is what happened in Latin America.  The Aztecs population dropped from 25 million to 2, the Incas from 10 million to 1.5, and in the Caribbean the indigenous population nearly disappeared.  This left a vacuum that would be filled by Europeans, Africans, and Indigenous people, and the mixtures of the 3 groups.

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9

Paid Labor System

This is a system that means people get paid for their labor as opposed to slavery, or other forms of forced labor.

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10

Potosi

This was a giant silver mine in Peru (today Bolivia).  Native people worked, mined in dangerous conditions for little pay.  A huge economy grew around the mine with 160,000 people working in the mine or supplying goods for the miners.

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11

Zacatecas

This was a large silver mine in Mexico.

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12

The Heart of the Spanish Empire

This was a term that referred to the giant silver mine Potosi, because this is where the Spanish wealth/heart was.

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13

The Great Marriage of Peru

Soon they discovered a method for getting silver out of the rock easier by using mercury.  A mercury mine was discovered south of Potosi leading to the great marriage of Peru.  The silver mine + the Mercury mine = the great marriage (making Spain richer).

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14

Galleon

Spanish trade ship

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15

Treaty of Tordesillas

This was a treaty that the Pope signed off on between Spain and Portugal dividing up land in Latin America.  The pope was on board because these countries promised to “save the souls” of the Native Americans by converting them to Roman Catholicism. The Pope believed that by converting them, they would then be able to go to heaven.

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16

“New Spain”

This was what Spain called Latin America as opposed to Spain or old Spain.

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17

Sugar Cane

This is the main cash crop that was grown in Brazil and exported.  It was very difficult to cut, and 7,000 slaves were imported per year to Brazil to work in the can fields.

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18

Society of Castes

This is a term for the social class system which was based on skin color in Latin America.

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19

Peninsulares

This was the term in Latin America for someone who had a European mom and dad, and was actually born in Europe (Spain).

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20

Creoles

This was the term in Latin America for someone who had a European mom and dad, and was actually born in Latin America.

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21

Mestizo/Mulatto

These were terms in Social Class system in Latin America for someone who had a European parent and an indigenous parent, and for someone who had a European parent and an African parent.

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22

Factory

This was the term for a fort + a warehouse/trading post. These factories held slaves before they got on the ships heading for the Americas.

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23

El Mina Castle

This is the most infamous factory located in Accra, Ghana today.  It held the “door of no return” literally a door that slaves would go through, and never come back to Africa.

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24

Interior Trade Centers/ Already existing networks

The Europeans would use already existing trade routes that were used by the Africans already. They would also utilize interior trade centers, the same ones the Africans used.

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25

Trend of the Atlantic slave trade

The trade was expansion.  It began in the 1500’s and from 1700-1800 the most slaves entered the Middle Passage. This was referred to as the “great age of the slave trade.”

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26

Middle Passage

This was the trip across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to the Americas. The slaves were packed in, abused, and starved.

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27

Demographics

12 million slaves were shipped across the Atlantic Ocean.  10 Million arrived in the Americas.  5 million arrived in Brazil, 4 million to the Caribbean, and about 450,000 to North America, United States.

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28

“Indies Piece”

This was the term for a man purchased for the slave trade on plantations in the Americas.  This term was clearly dehumanizing.

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29

Triangular Trade

This was the trade network that was laid over the original Columbian Exchange Network.  After about 1600, this new network drew more regions into this new Atlantic Trade Network. From Europe shipped guns and cloth (manufactured goods), From West Africa the guns and cloth were traded for slaves and the ships headed on to the Americas full of slaves.  In the Americas, the slaves were sold, and the ships were filled with raw materials such as cotton and sugar and in turn sailed back to Europe.

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30

Gunpowder Empires

These were empires that learned the helpful nature of gunpowder in getting land, holding land, and beating other, weaker empires. The cycle was to take land with people on them → turn them into slaves → sell the slaves off, get guns in return, and then go off to get more land. The cycle repeats.

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31

Asante/Benin/Dohomey

These were 3 West African Kingdoms that sold slaves to the Europeans.  They did choose how involved to be in the trade after the Europeans had arrived.  If the Europeans had never arrived, there would have been no Atlantic slave trade.  Benin chose to not sell as many of the other Kingdoms.

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32

2 slave trades:

The Atlantic Slave Trade (across the Atlantic ocean), and the Middle Eastern slave trade.  This slave trade began before the Global Tapestry Era maybe around 800-900CE.

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33

South Africa

South Africa was colonized by the Dutch in about 1650.  The Dutch sent farmers called Boers (Dutch word for farmer) to settle the land.  Those Boers took slaves and began farming in South Africa.

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34

Zulus/Shaka

The Zulus were an extremely powerful ethnic group in South Africa with a powerful leader called Shaka.  They will hold off the Europeans for a good time, but eventually their tides will turn.

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35

Saltwater slaves/Creole slaves

Saltwater slaves were those born in Africa and Creole slaves were born in the United States.  By 1850, less than 1% of the slaves in the U.S. were born in Africa. Creole slaves typically had lighter skin, so they’d get easier treatment.

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36

Manumission

This is the term that means a slave owner can free or manumit his slaves. This was rare in the United States.

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37

Candomble

A religion born in Brazil in the slave community. It was made up of many different African customs, and in addition was blended with Roman Catholicism.

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38

Vodun

Vodun = Voodoo a religion from Africa, brought with the Africans across the Atlantic Ocean, and still in Africa today.

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39

Slave Rebellions

Slaves rebelled in any way they could.  During the 1700s, there were 50,000 slaves that ran away in Suriname into the deep forests.  They mounted attacks against anyone looking for them to return.  These were the ancestors of people living in Suriname today.

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40

William Wilberforce

This was the Englishman who initiated the Abolition movement in Great Britain.

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