Biology PHall Red- Chapter 17 Evolution of Populations

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36 Terms

1

Population

A group of individuals of the same species that live and breed together in a defined area.

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2

Bell Curve

This graph plots the relative frequency of an observable polygenic trait or measurable variable.

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3

Gene Pool

This term describes the total genetic information available in a population.

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4

Allele Frequency

The number of times an allele appears in a population divided by the total number of times it could have appeared.

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5

Hardy-Weinberg Principle

This principle states that allele frequencies will remain constant from generation to generation if 5 requirements are met.

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6

Genetic Equilibrium

A situation in which allele frequencies remain constant within a population.

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7

Immigration

This is the movement of individuals into a population.

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8

Emigration

This is the movement of individuals out of a population.

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9

Gene Flow

The process of genes moving from one population to another

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10

Genetic Drift

This occurs when allele frequencies change in a population as a result of random events.

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11

Sexual Selection

The tendency of one sex to select desirable traits in the other

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12

Stabilizing Selection

This occurs when individuals with an average trait are at an advantage over individuals with extreme traits.

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13

Directional Selection

This occurs when individuals with an extreme trait are at an advantage over those with the average trait or a trait at the other extreme.

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14

Disruptive Selection

This occurs when individuals with the average trait are at a disadvantage compared to those individuals with traits at either extreme.

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15

Speciation

This is the process of species formation.

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16

Geographic Isolation

The physical separation of members of different populations.

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17

Reproductive Isolation

This results from barriers to successful breeding between population groups in the same area.

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18

Temporal Isolation

This results when the timing of important reproductive events separate two populations.

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19

Behavioral Isolation

This results when certain activities of one species act as a barrier to reproduction with another population.

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20

Polygenic Trait

A trait that is controlled by more than one gene is call a

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21

Single-Gene Trait

A trait that is controlled by only one gene.

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22

Phenotype

The physical appearance of an individual is known as its

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23

Founder Effect

This occurs when a small number of individuals of a certain species are separated and form a new population.

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24

Bottleneck Effect

The change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population .

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25

Species

A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.

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26

Molecular Clock

Model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently

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27

Punctuated Equilibrium

Pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change

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28

Gradualism

The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily

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29

Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

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30

Allopatric Speciation

The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.

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31

Sympatric Speciation

Speciation without isolated populations.

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32

Morphology

The scientific study of the internal and external structure and appearance of organisms.

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33

Prezygotic Isolation

a barrier to successful breeding that occurs before fertilization, such as differences in mating time or behavior

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34

Postzygotic Isolation

reproductive isolation that occurs after members of two different species have mated and produced a hybrid offspring. Such hybrids are usually unable to reproduce

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35

Gene Shuffling

random shuffling of genes caused by sexual reproduction

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36

Mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

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