APES Unit 8

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point pollution

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47 Terms

1

point pollution

Pollutants discharged from a single identifiable location (e.g., pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, containers of various types).

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2

non-point pollution

pollution that comes from many sources, not easily to identify where the exact sources come from (EX: water, air)

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3

oxygen sag curve

Oxygen depletion from pollution in rivers and lakes (Less DO, less animals can survive)*

<p>Oxygen depletion from pollution in rivers and lakes (Less DO, less animals can survive)*</p>
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4

range of tolerance

the limits to the abiotic conditions that a species can tolerate (Amount of DO, food, space, etc)

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5

What can nutrient pollution lead to?

Eutrophication and then dead zones

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6

Dead zones

In a body of water, an area with extremely low oxygen concentration and very little life. Often caused by eutrophication

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7

How does warm temperatures effect dissolved oxygen (DO)?

Lessens the amount of DO

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8

Sediment Pollution

It reduces light infiltration, lower the amount of photosynthesis that can occur under water.

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9

Endocrine disruptors

Chemicals that disrupt normal hormone functions. Can cause birth defects, developmental disorders, etc)

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10

Endocrine system

Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells. Can be disrupted by pollution.

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11

What is an example of an endocrine disruptor?

DDT

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12

Ecological services of wetlands

water purification, flood protection, water filtration, and habitat

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13

Wetland threats

commercial development, dam construction, overfishing, and pollutants from agriculture and industrial waste

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14

Oligotrophic lakes

Lake with high DO, low BOD, low nutrients, low algae content, Usually high in the mountains.

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15

Eutrophic lakes

Lakes with low DO, high BOD, high nutrients, high algae content

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16

Biological demand of oxygen (BOD)

How much oxygen a species needs to survive

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17

process of eutrophication

Nutrients added to water -> algae bloom -> algae die -> algae decompose (consumes O2, BOD increases) -> DO decreases -> dead zone

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18

Thermal pollution

a temperature increase in a body of water that is caused by human activity and that has a harmful effect on water quality and on the ability of that body of water to support life

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19

Solutions to thermal pollution

Cooling towers (cools water being put in) and closed systems (keeps water out of watershed)

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20

Thermal pollution graph

As the water temperature increases, the DO concentration decreases.

<p>As the water temperature increases, the DO concentration decreases.</p>
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21

persistant organic pollutants (POPs)

compound with carbon in it that resists photochemical, biological and chemical degradation

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22

Carcinogen

A cancer-causing substance, often found in POPs (EX: asbestos)

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23

What do POPs cause?

Carcinogens, endocrine disruptors, nervous/immune system damage, Wildlife decline and reproductive impairment

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24

How can POPs travel long distance?

Through wind, water, and bioaccumulation

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25

Biomagnification

An increased concentration of substances per unit of body tissue. Gets worse the higher up the food chain

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26

Bioaccumulation

The absorption of elements/compound by cells. Do not go away and can be passed on to next organism if current one is eaten.

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27

Biomagnification/Bioaccumulation impacts of humans

Reproductive issues, nervous system issues, cardiovascular impacts

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28

Biomagnification/Bioaccumulation impacts of top carnivores

egg shell thinning, developmental issue, reproductive problems

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29

sanitary landfill

A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is dug up, lined with plastics or clay, storm water collection leachate collection and methane collection implanted, filled with waste, covered over by land

<p>A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is dug up, lined with plastics or clay, storm water collection leachate collection and methane collection implanted, filled with waste, covered over by land</p>
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30

Landfill

Most common type of solid waste disposal, decomposition depends on trash and conditions, can contaminate groundwater and release harmful gases

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31

Incinerators

Trash is burned, gets rid of trash volume, releases air pollutants

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32

Illegal dumping

Happens if waste collection is too expensive, leads to environmental problems

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33

ocean dumping

leads to trash islands, marine life killed by entangling or ingesting waste

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34

3 Rs

reduce, reuse, recycle

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35

Landfill mitigation

lowers the amount of landfills, done by incineration and habitat restoration

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36

waste-to-energy

A system in which heat generated by incineration is used as an energy source rather than released into the atmosphere

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37

Three stages of sewage treatment

Primary (physical, Secondary (biological), and tertiary (chemical)

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38

Primary (physical) sewage treatment

screen or grate removes large objects from waste

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39

Secondary (biological) sewage treatment

Solid waste settles to the bottom, waste water aerated to allow good bacteria to break down bad bacteria

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40

Tertiary (chemical) sewage treatment

Water treated with CL, O3, or UV light to kill remaining bacteria

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41

LD50

lethal dose (of a toxin) for 50% of the test population. Smaller the dose, the more toxic the substance is.

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42

Pathogens

Microbes that cause disease

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43

How do pathogens spread

Areas lack sanitary waste disposal/ have contaminated water supply -> spread of infectious disease (tropical ones heading more north/south with climate change)

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44

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

controls hazardous waste with a cradle to grave system

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45

Neurotoxins

toxic substances, such as lead or mercury, that specifically poison nerve cells

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46

Teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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47

How do you find the safe human dose of LD50?

The divide the dose by 1000

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