AP Bio - Unit 3

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Anabolic reaction

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Anabolic reaction

Energy and smaller molecules create larger molecule (ex: photosynthesis)

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Catabolic reaction

Larger molecule broken down into energy and smaller molecules (ex: cellular respiration)

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Exegonic reaction

Reaction where energy is released, occur spontaneously

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Endergonic reaction

Reaction that requires energy

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Coupling reactions

The released energy of an exegonic reaction used to fuel an endergonic reaction; used by ATP when it releases the third phosphate

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Catalysts

Something that alters the rate of reaction

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Enzyme

Catalyzing reactions by lowering activation energy, made of protein chains

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pH and enzymes

Higher pH, more hydrogen bonds pulling at the shape of the enzymes

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Denaturation

When an enzyme loses its shape; can occur with factors such as pH and temperature

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Competitive inhibitor

Inhibitor - Competing with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme

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Noncompetitive inhibitors

Inhibitor - binds to a part of the enzyme (not the active site), so that it changes shape

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Allosteric site

Enzyme regulators bind here, so that the enzyme changes shape and is able to stop catalyzing products when needed

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Coenzyme

Organic cofactor

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Cofactor

"Helpers" that enable the enzyme to function properly; ex - metal ions

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Alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation

Two types of fermentation

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Cellular respiration

The process of creating ATP energy from glucose

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Alcoholic fermentation

After glycolysis, pyruvate is converted to ethanol - occurs in yeast cells

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Lactic acid fermentation

After glycolysis, pryuvate is reduced by NADH and lactic acid is created as a waste product - occurs in

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Pryuvate, NADH, ATP

Products of glycolysis

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Pyruvate is oxidized by NAD+, letting off CO2, and then linking to Coenzyme A to create Acetyl CoA

Next step in cellular respiration after pyruvate goes into the mitochondria

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ADP, NADH, FADH2 (also releases C02)

Products of the Kreb Cycle

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Process of making ATP using the stored energy in the ETC

Oxidative phosphorylation

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Step of oxidative phosphorylation - movement of ions down the electrochemical gradient, energy used by ATP Synthase to create ATP from ADP

Chemiosmosis

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NADH and FADH2

The molecules that bring electrons to the ETC in cellular respiration

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O2, combines with H to create water

The final electron acceptor in cellular respiration

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It keeps the electrochemical gradient balanced the way it should be; H goes out so FADH and NADH2 can drop off more molecules

Why is O2 necessary for oxidative phosphorylation?

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Autotrophs

Plants/ self feeders

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Heterotrophs

Organisms relying on compounds produced by other organisms for energy, also called consumers

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Stroma

Where CO2 enters and H2O exits a plant; similar to the matrix of mitochondria

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Thykaloid

Where photosynthesis reactions take place in the chloroplast; light dependent reactions occur in the membrane and Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma

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Create energy to drive the Calvin Cycle through the creation of ATP and NADH

What is the purpose of light dependent reactions?

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Light is absorbed, electrons in Photosystem II are excited and bump up to the primary acceptor

What happens first in light dependent reactions?

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They go through the ETC into Photosystem I

Where do electrons go after being excited in Photosystem II?

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Light energy excites the electrons to the primary acceptor of Photosystem I

What happens to electrons in Photosystem I?

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NADP+ is reduced and carries the electrons to the Calvin Cycle

After being sent out of Photosystem I, where do electrons go?

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Stroma = low hydrogen concentration, interior of thykaloid (thykaloid lumen) = high concentration

Where are the highs and lows of the concentration gradient in photosynthesis?

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ATP Synthase uses the concentration gradient of the thykaloid to power combination of Pi and ADP (process called chemiosmosis)

How is ATP created in light dependent reactions?

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Combines with a 5 carbon acceptor molecule called RuBP - catalyzed by enzyme called rubisco

What happens to CO2 first in the Calvin Cycle?

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The CO2/RuBP combination splits into 2 molecules of 3-PGA

After CO2 combines with RuBP in the Calvin Cycle, what happens? (Aka carbon fixation phase)

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Using NADPH and ATP from the light dependent reactions, 3-PGA is reduced into G3P

In the Calvin Cycle, what occurs during the Reduction stage?

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G3P either exits the cycle to create glucose, or goes to regenerate RuBP

In the Calvin Cycle, where do the molecules of G3P go? (Aka regeneration phase)

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