ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

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Pollution

When some unwanted materials mix with the environment which is harmful to our health and to the society is called __________.

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environmental pollution

defined as the contamination of the physical and biological components of the environment system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected , and can cause harmful effects on life forms and property.

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Pollutants

any substance (such as CO2,CO, dust particle, NO2,CFC or chloroflorocarbon etc.) causing nuisance or harmful effects or uneasiness to the organisms.

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Environmental pollutants

are chemicals that have ended up in the environment as a result of human activities and that are hazardous to health

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‣ Water pollution ‣ Air pollution ‣ Soil/Land pollution ‣ Sound/Noise pollution ‣ Radioactive pollution ‣Thermal pollution

TYPES OF POLLUTION

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WATER POLLUTION

defined as alteration in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of water through natural or human activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use

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-drinking -domestic and municipal use , -agricultural -irrigation -industries -navigation -recreation

The freshwater present on the earth surfaces is put to many uses such as:

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wastewater

The used water becomes contaminated and is called __________.

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  1. Point sources

  2. Non-point sources

There are two ( 2 ) major sources of water pollution:

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Point sources

are direct discharges to a single point. Examples includes discharges from sewage treatment plants, injection wells and some industrial sources

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Non-point sources

are diffused across a broad area and their contamination cannot be traced to a single discharge point. Examples includes: runoff of excess fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides from agricultural lands and residential areas oil , grease, and toxic chemicals from urban runoff and energy production, etc.

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➡ Municipal waste water ➡ Industrial waste ➡ Inorganic pollutants ➡ Organic pollutants ➡ Agricultural wastes ➡ Marine pollution ➡ Thermal pollution

OTHER CLASSIFICATION OF POLLUTION SOURCES:

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๏It causes serious heath hazards to people ๏It can cause diseases like cholera, typhoid, jaundice, and various skin diseases. ๏It can cause genetic deformities ๏Eutrophication on bodies of water ๏Depletion of dissolved oxygen ๏Biomagnification on organisms

HARMFUL EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION

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๏ Treatment of water before leaving to bodies of water ๏ Restoration of polluted water bodies ๏ River water monitoring ๏ Effluents should not be discharged unless treated ๏ Strict law enforcement on laws and policies for water environment ๏ Coastal regulation zones ๏ Minimum developmental activities on shore

CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION

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Air Pollution

An atmospheric condition in which certain substances (including normal constituents in excess) are present in concentration which can cause undesirable effects on man and his environment.

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➡Main problems are related to Respiratory Track - Asthma, hay fever, and other allergic diseases. ➡ Irritation of the eye, nose and throat. In severe cases there may be headaches, nausea, and loss of coordination. ➡ Prolonged exposure can cause damage to the nervous system, digestive problems, and in some cases cause Lung cancer. ➡ It lowers our resistance to colds and pneumonia. ➡ CO has affinity towards Hb which cause disturbance in transportation of Oxygen, impairing our concentration, slow our reflexes, and make us confused and sleepy. ➡ SO2 in the air leads to diseases of the lung and other lung disorders such as wheezing and shortness of breath. ➡ Chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. ➡ Effects of Arsenic, Asbestos, Mercury , Benzene etc.

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH

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Atmosphere

  • It is the life blanket of Earth

  • Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live

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➡Pollutants enter through stomata ➡Destroy chlorophyll and Affect photosynthesis ➡Cuticle( Wax Layer on Leaves) is lost ➡Necrosis – Damage to Leaf Structure ➡Chlorosis - Loss/ reduction of Chlorophyll ➡Abscission - Dropping of leaf ➡Epinasty – Downward curling of Leaf ➡DEATH

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON PLANTS

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➡Corrosion of metal surfaces, fading ➡SO2 & water form H2S – corrosion as well as disfigurement of statues made up of limestone or Marble ➡Air pollutants mix with rain water and increase acidity (Acid Rain) of water body and kill fish. ➡Ozone causes crackling of rubber

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON ANIMALS AND MATERIALS

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➡Visibility ➡Pollutants in the presence of sunlight produce photochemical Smog ➡Emission of Green House Gases tend to Global Warming ➡CFC’s cause Ozone Depletion

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

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๏Proper air pollution control devices in industries ๏Using low sulphur coal ๏Regular engine tune up, replacement of old more polluting vehicles ๏Using mass transport system, bicycles etc ๏Shifting to less polluting fuels ๏Planting more trees ๏No to FIRE CRACKERS on special occasion and other activities

CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION

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LAND POLLUTION

Defined as the presence of toxic chemicals (pollutants or contaminants) in soil, in high enough concentrations to pose a risk to human health and/or the ecosystem.

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-Anthropogenic (man-made) causes -Natural causes

There are two main causes through which soil pollution is generated:

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•Lead (Pb) •Mercury (Hg) •Arsenic (As) •Copper (Cu) •Zinc (Zn) •Nickel (Ni) •Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) •Herbicides/Insecticides

Examples of Soil Contaminants:

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‣ Construction wastes ‣ Agriculture wastes ‣ Domestic wastes ‣ Industrial wastes

CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION

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Construction wastes

  • Buildings take up resources and land, the trees are chopped down and used to make buildings.

  • Takes away the places for animals and other organisms to live.

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Agriculture wastes

  • As there are more and more people inhabiting the earth, food is in higher demand and so forests are chopped down and turned into farmland

  • In addition, herbicides, pesticides, artificial fertilizers, animal manure are washed into the soil and pollute it.

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Domestic wastes

  • As tons of domestic waste is dumped every day. Some waste from homes, offices and industries can be recycled or burnt in incinerators.

  • There is still a lot of garbage, such as refrigerators and washing machines that are dumped in landfills simply because they cannot be reused in anyway, nor recycled .

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Industrial wastes

-Plastics factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, nuclear waste disposal activity, large animal farms, coal-fired power plants, metals production factories and other heavy industry all contribute to land pollution.

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‣ Reduce soil productivity ‣ Affects soil flora and fauna ‣Sludge contains worms, bacteria and pathogens. ‣ Radioactive wastes enter food chain ‣ Cause diseases and other health problems through inhalation or contact with soil

EFFECTS OF LAND POLLUTION

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‣ Treatment before discharge ‣ Convert waste to biogas, fuel, etc. ‣ Recover from soil ‣Solid waste Management

CONTROL OF LAND POLLUTION

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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Since higher standards of living generate more waste, enormous quantities of solid waste are produced

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  1. Biodegradable (Ex. vegetable waste, food waste, dry leaves)

  2. Non-biodegradable (Ex. polyethylene bags, glass bottles, scrap metal, tins, cans, electronic waste)

There are two (2) types of waste:

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  1. Composting

  2. Sanitary landfill

  3. Incineration

  4. Segregation of waste

  5. By 3-R’s (Reduce, reuse, recycle)

Examples of solid waste management:

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  1. Sanitary Landfill

  2. Incineration

  3. Composting

Methods of Waste Disposal

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THERMAL POLLUTION

  • Presence of waste heat in the water which can cause undesirable changes in natural environment.

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The thermal and nuclear power plants

Main source of thermal pollution are __________.

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Thermal and Nuclear power plants

These power plants use water as coolants and release hot water into the original source .Sudden rise in temperature kills fish and other aquatic animals.

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➡Oxygen penetration decreases, dissolved oxygen also reduces as the solubility is decreased ➡Heat kills fishes and other aquatic life. ➡Toxicity of pesticides & chemicals increase with increase in temperature ➡Metabolic Activities increase at high temp. requiring more oxygen. ➡Spawning is disturbed ➡Fish migration is affected ➡Composition of flora & fauna changes ➡Temp. tolerant species start developing

EFFECTS OF THERMAL POLLUTION

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➡Cooling ponds, cooling towers and spray ponds

CONTROLS OF THERMAL POLLUTION

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NOISE POLLUTION

Is the excessive, displeasing human, animal, or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life

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๏ Sounds becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations is “NOISE”.

๏ World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well-being”

๏ Sound travels in form of pressure waves through air, liquid, or solid.

๏ Measured on decibel scale.

๏ Fire crackers: 125 dB

๏ Construction sites: 100 dB

NOISE POLLUTION

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➡Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas

➡Heavy machinery

➡Construction activities causes a lot of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers

➡Celebrations and household appliances (like loud speakers, fans, vacuum cleaners)

➡Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of noise pollution

SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION

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➡Physiological and psychological health

➡Interferes communication

➡Hearing damage

➡High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are problems related to noise pollution

➡It can also cause memory loose, severe depression, and panic attacks

EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION

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✓Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution.

✓Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution

✓Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution.

✓Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection

✓ Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation.

✓ Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside.

✓ Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.

✓ Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas

WAYS TO CONTROL NOISE POLLUTION

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RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION

the physical pollution of living organisms and their environment as a result of release of radioactive substances into the environment during nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon production and decommissioning, mining of radioactive ores, handling and disposal of radioactive waste, and accidents at nuclear power plants.

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RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION

A major environmental concern related to nuclear power is the creation of radioactive wastes such as uranium mill tailings, spent (used) reactor fuel, and other radioactive wastes. These materials can remain radioactive and dangerous to human health for thousands of years.

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Radioactive wastes

Are subject to special regulations that govern their handling, transportation, storage, and disposal to protect human health and the environment.

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๏Operations conducted by nuclear power stations produce radioactive waste. Nuclearfuel reprocessing plants in northern Europe are the biggest sources of man-made nuclear waste in the surrounding ocean. Radioactive traces from these plants have been found as far away as Greenland.

๏Mining and refining of uranium and thorium are also causes of marine nuclear waste.

๏Waste is also produced in the nuclear fuel cycle which is used in many industrial, medical and scientific processes.

Nuclear/Radioactive Waste comes from a number of sources:

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‣Nuclear power plants ‣Nuclear attacks ‣Weapon testing ‣Nuclear disasters/accidents ‣Radioisotopes ‣Nuclear waste disposal in the environment ‣Transportation of nuclear matters

CAUSES OF NUCLEAR POLLUTION

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➡ Genetic damage: DNA alterations, gene damage, chromosome damage

➡ Somatic damage: burns, miscarriages, eye cataract, cancers of skin, bones, breast

EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR POLLUTION

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‣ Proper maintenance of nuclear plants ‣ Preventive nuclear experiments ‣ Safe transportation ‣ Ban usage of nuclear weapons ‣ Proper storage ‣ Minimize use of nuclear elements ‣ Extraction of radioactive elements from nuclear waste

CONTROL OF NUCLEAR POLLUTION

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-Think globally, act locally -Use eco-friendly products -Use rechargeable batteries -No to excess pesticides, chemicals, paints, solvents -Use less or only required quantity of resource -Plant more trees (local species) -3 R’s - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

ROLES OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN POLLUTION PREVENTION

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-Laws have been made and are followed in regards to pollution problems

-Pollution control boards

-Pollution level standards: established and compulsory to maintain

-NGO’s initiatives

-Research and development of better technologies

-Awareness in schools, colleges, and offices.

INITIATIVES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

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REPUBLIC ACT 9003 ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT OF 2000

In partnership with stakeholders, the law aims to adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program that shall ensure the protection of public health and environment. The law ensures proper segregation, collection, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adaptation of best ecowaste products.

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REPUBLIC ACT 9275 PHILIPPINE CLEAN WATER ACT OF 2004

A law that aims to protect the country's water bodies from pollution from land-based sources (industries and commercial establishments, agriculture and community/household activities). It provides for comprehensive and integrated strategy to prevent and minimize pollution through a multi-sectoral and participatory approach involving all the stakeholders.

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REPUBLIC ACT 8749 PHILIPPINE CLEAN AIR ACT OF 1999

This law aims to achieve and maintain clean air that meets the National Air Quality guideline values for criteria pollutants, throughout the Philippines, while minimizing the possible associated impacts to the economy.

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REPUBLIC ACT 6969 TOXIC SUBSTANCES, HAZARDOUS AND NUCLEAR WASTE CONTROL ACT OF 1990

This law aims to regulate restrict or prohibit the importation, manufacture, processing, sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures the present unreasonable risk to human health. It likewise prohibits the entry, even in transit, of hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into the Philippine territorial limits for whatever purpose; and to provide advancement and facilitate research and studies on toxic chemicals

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PRESIDENTIAL DECREE 1586 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT (EIS) STATEMENT OF 1978

The Environment Impact Assessment System was formally established in 1978 with the enactment of Presidential Decree no. 1586 to facilitate the attainment and maintenance of rational and orderly balance between socio-economic development and environmental protection. EIA is a planning and management tool that will help government, decision makers, the proponents and the affected community address the negative consequences or risks on the environment. The process assures implementation of environment-friendly projects.

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‣ International environmental law is a body of international law concerned with protecting the environment, primarily through bilateral and multilateral international agreements.

‣Although conservation movements developed in many nations in the nineteenth century, these movements typically only addressed environmental concerns within a single nation.

‣By the late-1960s, the international community realized that an international approach to environmental issues was required

WHO MAKES INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS?

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  • Customary international law

  • International treaties

  • Judicial decisions of international courts

International environmental law is derived primarily from three sources:

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Customary international law

Refers to a set of unwritten laws that have arisen from widespread custom and usage among nations

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International treaties

Includes laws on warning a neighboring nation about a major accident that could affect its environment

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Judicial decisions of international courts

Decisions given by such as the International Court of Justice or the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

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POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLES

ONE OF THE EARLIEST LAWS ESTABLISHED, WHICH IS ALSO A KEY FOUNDATION OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS THAT FOLLOWS, IS THE

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POLLUTER PAYS PRINCIPLES

-Holds that if pollution from one nation causes harm in another nation, then the polluter nation must pay to remedy the damage.

-This was was created due to the air pollution of the Canadian smelting factory on the 1930’s-1940’s that causes a dispute between United States and Canada. The pollution destroyed crops in the United States as it blew across the American-Canadian border.

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The destruction of ecosystems and the exploitation of wild flora and fauna

First environmental issues.

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Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Is an international agreement designed to protect endangered plants and animals by regulating the trade of endangered species or products derived from them, which goes in effect since 1975

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Stockholm Conference

The United Nations (UN) convened the first major international conference on the environment, in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1972, also know as

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The Stockholm conference also created the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

An institutional home for environmental protection in the United Nations.

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Rio Earth Summit

The most important by far has been the 1992 UN Conference of Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the

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  1. addressing climate change

  2. biological diversity

  3. desertification

In the Earth Summit, world leaders agreed to a 500-page blueprint of comprehensive plan of action for sustainable development (known as AGENDA 21) and to three (3) major treaties:

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‣ this is a United Nations-sponsored treaty/ agreement that binds signatory nations to commit in reducing their greenhouse-gas emissions

‣ The protocol, drafted and agreed in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, marked the finalization of years of negotiations that emerged from the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

‣As of 2020, the US is the only signatory that has not ratified the Protocol

KYOTO PROTOCOL

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-Montreal Protocol -UN Framework Convention on Climate Change -Kyoto Protocol -Paris Agreement -Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety -Convention to Combat Desertification -Ramsar Wetlands Convention -Basel Convention on Hazardous Wastes -Stockholm Convention on POPs -Rotterdam Convention on PIC -Minimata Convention on Mercury

Global Environmental Agreements

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