WHAP: Foundations Classical Vocabulary

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Zoroastrianism

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1

Zoroastrianism

monotheistic religion; emerged during the Persian Empire

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Persian Empire

empire; emerged in Southwest Asia (Middle East) during the Classical era; established by Cyrus the Great; covered most of the ancient world (Asia, Europe, and Africa); made up of the Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sassanids

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Royal Road

highway reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great; road built to facilitate rapid communication throughout large empire

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4

Alexander the Great

conquered the Persian empire; advanced borders to India; combined Greek and Persian culture and influence

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5

Satraps

governor of a province in the Persian Empire; often a relative of the king; responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute (taxes) to central government

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6

Hellenism

culture derived from Greek civilization and the spreading of that culture throughout Mediterranean; blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian ideas; result of Alexander the Great’s empire

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Aristotle

Greek philosopher; taught that knowledge was based upon observation of phenomena in the material world; mentor of Alexander the Great

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8

Athens

Greek city-state; leader in the arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy, and architecture

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9

Sparta

Greek city-state; ruled by an oligarchy; military focused; slaves for agriculture; discouraged art

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10

Socrates

Athenian philosopher; shifted the emphasis of philosophical discussion to ethics and human behavior; influenced Plato; developed the Socratic method

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Empiricism

theory that all knowledge originates in experience; practice of relying on direct observation of events and experience to determine reality

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12

Cultural Syncretism

blending of foreign beliefs with indigenous beliefs to create a newly formed culture or religion of its own

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13

Phoenicia

civilization of independent city-states along the Mediterranean Sea; known for maritime trade and commerce due to their efforts in shipbuilding; inventors of the 1st alphabet

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14

Caravanserai

roadside Inn along frequently traveled trade routes (Silk Road, Royal Road); had large courtyard that provided accommodations for trade caravans; allowed travelers to rest and recover; allowed commerce and information to flow amongst merchants from Europe, Africa, and Asia

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15

Roman Republic

507 to 31 BCE; largely governed by the aristocratic ---- Senate; citizens voted representatives into power

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16

Punic Wars

series of three wars between Rome and Carthage over dominance of Mediterranean; Carthage’s General (Hannibal) unable to stop the Romans; Romans then conquered Greece, and North Africa, including Egypt.

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17

Plebeians

ordinary roman citizens

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18

Patricians

wealthy class in Roman society; landowners

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19

Julius Caesar

Roman General responsible for the conquest of Gaul (modern day France); returned to Rome with army and overthrew the Republic; assassinated in 44 BCE by conservative Senators

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20

Roman Empire

Empire; established by Augustus Caesar (Octavian) in 27 BCE; land in Europe, Africa, and Asia at peak

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21

Pax Romana

“Roman Peace”; stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman empire in the 1-2 centuries; allowed people and traded goods to safely move along Roman roads and seas; facilitated spread of culture and ideas

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22

Christianity

religion emerging from Southwest Asia (Middle East) in the 1st century CE; Jesus is son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind; monotheistic extension of Judaism

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23

Maurya Empire

classical civilization in India; unified South Asia under one government; expanded territory under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya

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24

Gupta Empire

Indian Empire; ruled through a central government; “Golden Age of India” due to advancements in education, healthcare, trade, and numbers

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25

Hinduism

religion and philosophy; developed in ancient India; reincarnation; supreme being who takes many forms; world’s oldest religion

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26

Brahmin

highest of the varnas or caste groups; priests

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27

Rig Veda

first Vedas scripture; lays out the principles for thought and development in India

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Upanishads

major book in Hinduism; explains Hindu idea of divine force informing whole universe

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29

Brahma

Hindu god; considered the creator of the world

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30

Caste System

rigid social class hierarchy system in India; four distinct groups/varnas; enforced by the government and Hindu religion

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31

Samasara

Hinduism and Buddhism; the endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth

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Karma

person’s deed and actions; moral law of cause and effect of actions; determines the nature of one’s rebirth

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Dharma

Hinduism; duties and obligations of each caste

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34

Jati

Hindu caste; distinctive social group; sub caste

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35

Sati

Indian ritual; widow threw herself on the funeral pyre of deceased husband to join him in death; show of devotion

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36

Laws of Manu

set of laws; relates to the caste system and Hinduism; formalized long-held Hindu traditions

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37

Ashoka

ruled the Maurya Empire; supported Buddhism; ruled empire at peak; built roads and irrigation systems to increase trade; death sent empire into decline

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Reincarnation

belief that individual soul is reborn in a different form after death

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39

Buddhism

religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama in India; philosophy is based on the teaching of the Buddha and that holding a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desires

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40

Four Nobel Truths

taught by the Buddha; form the foundation of Buddhism; all life is suffering, desire is the cause of suffering, removing desire removes suffering; can be done through Eightfold Path

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Eightfold Path

Buddhism; basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering; right views, intentions, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration

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Siddhartha Gautama

The Buddha; Indian prince who renounced his wealth and social position after becoming enlightened he stated the principles of Buddhism

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Nirvana

Buddhism; the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment

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44

Daoism

Founded by Laozi; originating in China; emphasizes living in harmony with the Dao (a.k.a. “the way” or natural order of the universe)

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45

Qin Dynasty

Chinese dynasty; ended Warring States Period; reunified China under one rule; lasted only 14 years; laid the foundation of centralized rule in China; used Legalist policies to gain control.

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Confucianism

system of ethics, education, and statesmanship; taught by Confucius and his disciples; stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct

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Analects

Confucius’s teachings written by his disciples

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48

Filial Piety

China; having the upmost respect for your parents as well as other superiors and political authorities

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49

Shi Huangdi

1st Emperor of China; united China under the Qin dynasty; built roads; began Great Wall of China; believed in Legalism (strict laws); anti-Confucius.

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50

Han Dynasty

imperial dynasty; overthrew the Qin dynasty; ruled China 206 BCE to 221 CE; expanded its boundaries; established a central government; created the civil service exam; increased the popularity of Silk Road

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51

Civil Service Exam

exams that Chinese bureaucrats (government officials) needed to pass to serve government; based on Confucian teachings; established during Han dynasty

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52

Indian Ocean Trade Network

largest sea trading area in the world until the 1400s; connected Southeast Asia and China to Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia; to trade common goods, such as spices; helped spread major world religions (like Islam)

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Silk Road

interconnected series of trade routes through various regions of the Asian continent (mainly connecting China to Mediterranean); connecting civilizations such as China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, as well as Rome; to exchange luxury goods.

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54

Moche

prominent civilization in modern-day Peru; around 600 CE; before the rise of the Incan empire; depended on trade and agriculture

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55

Mayan

major civilization in Southern Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula; influenced by the Olmec; established independent city-states; believed in multiple gods; invented a calendar

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56

Oligarchy

form of government; small number of upper-class citizens make the decisions for everyone

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Theocracy

government; guided by divine power and controlled by religious leaders.

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Democracy

political system; supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

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Aristocracy

form of government; power is held by the nobility; referred to as traditional elite or “the best” people; usually hereditary

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