Bio Exam Semester 1

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Protons

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127 Terms

1

Protons

positively charged particles found in the nucleus

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Electrons

Negatively charged particles found around the nucleus

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Neutrons

the particles of the nucleus that have no charge

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4

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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Ion

An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons.

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covalent bond

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

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ionic bond

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

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8

Where are protons located in an atom?

They are positively charged and are found Inside atomic nucleus's

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9

Where are neutrons located in an atom?

They dont have a positive or negative charge and are located in the nucleus

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10

Where are electrons located in an atom?

They're located around the nucleus

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11

What makes an ion positive or negative?

If the atom has more electrons than protons, it is a negative ion, or ANION. If it has more protons than electrons, it is a positive ion

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12

Describe the difference between a hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecule

Hydrophilic means water loving, hydrophobic means water fearing. Hydrophilic molecules get absorbed or dissolved in water while hydrophobic molecules get dissolved/absorbed in oil based substances.

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Monomer

A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

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Polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

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Carbohydrates

the starches and sugars present in foods

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16

Monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

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Disaccharide

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

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Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides

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19

Suffix - ose

Tells that a substance is a sugar. ex: Ribose, glucose, fructose

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20

Lipid

macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

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Phospholipids

A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.

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saturated fats

A fat that is solid at room temperature and found in animal fats, lards, and dairy products.

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unsaturated fats

A fat that is liquid at room temperature and found in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds.

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Protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair

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amino acids

building blocks of proteins

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nucleic acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

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hydrolysis reaction

A chemical reaction that breaks apart a larger molecule by adding a molecule of water

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dehydration synthesis reaction

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

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29

Monosaccharides are the monomers of ____

carbohydrates

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30

Amino acids are the monomers of ____

proteins

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31

Glycerol and fatty acids are the monomers of

lipids

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32

Nucleotides are the monomers of

Dna/nuclaic acids

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33

Describe the difference between mono, di, and polysaccharide

Monosaccharides are carbohydrates with one molecule. Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharides linked together, and polysaccharides are composed of 3 or more monosaccharides linked together.

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34

Enzymes

Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things

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35

activation energy

Energy needed to get a reaction started

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catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

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Substrate

reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

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Reactant

A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

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product

A substance produced in a chemical reaction

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40

active site

The part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs.

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41

Inhibitors of enzymes

Can be competitive or non competitive and slow the rate of reaction

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competitive inhibition

Inhibition of an enzyme's ability to catalyze a chemical reaction via a non-reactant molecule that competes with the substrate(s) for access to the active site.

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non-competitive inhibitor

A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.

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lock and key model

The model of the enzyme that shows the substrate fitting perfectly into the active site

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induced fit model

Change in the shape of an enzyme's active site that enhances the fit between the active site and its substrate(s)

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feedback inhibition

A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.

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47

Whats the suffix for an enzyme?

-ase. example: lipase, amylase, maltase

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48

Describe how an enzyme speeds up a reaction by acting as a biological catalyst and lowering the activation energy

Enzymes work by binding to reactant molecules and holding them in such a way that the chemical bond-breaking and bond-forming processes take place more readily.

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49

Differentiate between competitive and non-competitive inhibition.

A competitive inhibitor structurally resembles the substrate for a given enzyme and competes with the substrate for binding at the active site of the enzyme. A noncompetitive inhibitor binds at a site distinct from the active site and can bind to either the free enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complex.

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50

phospholipid bilayer

a two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid ends facing inward and the hydrophilic phosphate ends facing outward.

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plasma membrane

A selectively-permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells

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fluid moasic model

model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane

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53

Aquaporins

A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane

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Diffusion

the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

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Osmosis

diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

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56

Hydrophilic

water loving, polar

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Hydrophobic

Water fearing, non polar

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active transport

the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.

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Endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

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60

Exocytosis

Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material

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Tonicity

the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water

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isotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution

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Hypertonic solution

Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water

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hypotonic solution

Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water

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selective permeability

A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.

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66

What molecules are able to pass through the cell membrane?

Small, non-polar molecules like O2 and CO2

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What molecules are not able to pass through the cell membrane?

Large, polar molecules like glucose or amino acids.

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68

How do isotonic solutions impact the cell?

there will be no net flow of water into or out of the cell, and the cell's volume will remain stable

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69

How does a hypertonic solution impact a cell?

The cell will shrivel and die by a process known as plasmolysis.

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70

How does a hypotonic solution impact a cell?

The cell will swell and expand until it eventually burst through a process known as cytolysis

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71

Prokaryote

simple celled organism lacking a nucleus

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Eurkaryote

more complex cell, membrane bound organelles, has nucleus

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Nucleus

A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

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Nucleolus

Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes

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cell wall

strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in plant, algae, and fungi cells

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Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are sustained

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Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

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Chloroplast

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

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Rough ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.

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80

Smooth ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes. also makes lipids

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Golgi apparatus

A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell

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Vacuole

Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

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Lysosome

An organelle containing digestive enzymes

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Peroxisomes

Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals

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Cytoskeleton

network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement

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Ribosomes

site of protein synthesis

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87

What are the differences between plant and animal cells?

Animal cells each have a centrosome and lysosomes, whereas plant cells do not. Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts and other specialized plastids, and a large central vacuole, whereas animal cells do not.

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88

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

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89

ADP

(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy

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90

celluar respiration

the process in cells in which oxygen is used to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules

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91

Photosynthesis

Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars

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aerobic respiration

Respiration that requires oxygen

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anaerobic respiration

Respiration that does not require oxygen

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94

lactic acid fermentation

The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.

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95

alcoholic fermentation

the anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol

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96

What are the reactants and products of cellular respiration and photosynthesis

The reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water, which are the products of cellular respiration. The reactants of cellular respiration are oxygen and sugar, which are the products of photosynthesis.

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97

Identify when lactic acid fermentation would occur and the effects of its byproducts.

Inadequate oxygen supply in human muscle cells leads to anaerobic respiration. Thus, lactic acid fermentation takes place to produce energy molecules. Lactic acid is the byproduct of this process. Excessive buildup of lactic acid creates muscle discomfort called cramps.

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98

Chromosome

A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

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99

sister chromatids

Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.

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Centromere

the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

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