1. Crop Production and Management (copy)

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Agriculture

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34 Terms

1

Agriculture

Agriculture is the science that deals with the cultivation of plants and raising livestock for human use.

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2

Agronomy

Study and development of techniques for improving agricultural practices.

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3

Horticulture

Cultivation of fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.

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4

Animal Husbandry

Rearing and Management of domesticated animals.

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5

Crops

The same kinds of plants that are grown, cultivated and harvested in the field on a large scale for profit or livelihood.

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6

Kharif Crops

Crops grown in the rainy season between June and September.

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7

Examples of Kharif Crops

A few examples of Kharif Crops are paddy, cotton, soybean, jowar, bajra, groundnut, maize, etc.

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8

Rabi Crops

Crops grown in the winter season between October and March.

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9

Examples of Rabi Crops

A few examples of Rabi Crops are wheat, pea, gram, mustard, linseed, etc.

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10

Zaid Crops

Crops grown in the summer season between April and June.

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11

Examples of Zaid Crops

A few examples of Zaid Crops are watermelon, pumpkin, bottle gourd, etc.

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12

Agricultural Practices

The various activities or tasks which a farmer performs to produce a good crop.

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13

Agricultural Implements

A number of different tools required during the course of different agricultural practices.

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14

Step-by-Step process of Agriculture

Preparation of Soil -> Adding Manure and Fertilizers -> Seed Selection and sowing -> Irrigation -> Protection from stray animals, birds, pests and diseases -> Harvesting, Threshing and Winnowing -> Storage.

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15

Ploughing

The process of loosening and turning the soil is called tilling or ploughing.

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16

Plough

An agricultural implement made of wood, containing a plough share made of iron, attached to a wooden plough shaft.

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17

Hoe

It is a simple tool used for removing weeds and ploughing the soil.

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18

Cultivator

An agricultural implement equipped with shovels, blades, etc., which is used to break up soil and remove seeds.

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19

Levelling

The process of crushing big lumps of soil present after ploughing, to ensure a flat land and prevent erosion of soil by wind or water.

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20

Leveller

An agricultural implement used to crush big lumps of soil (called clods) that may remain in the field.

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21

Manuring

The process of applying organic materials and adding nutrients to the soil is called manuring.

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22

Broadcasting

The process of sowing seeds manually by sprinkling them into the soil by hand.

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23

Seed Drill

An agricultural implement consisting of a funnel shaped opening, long tubes, attached to a plough, which ensures the proper sowing of seeds.

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24

Nursery Bed

A place where seeds of plants like paddy, tomato and onions are sown in, to ensure disease-free growth.

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25

Field Fallow

A method of allowing land to naturally regain the nutrients by leaving it free (or fallow) for one or more season.

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26

Crop Rotation

A method of changing crops in each season so that the soil is not depleted of any particular nutrient.

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27

Mixed Cropping

A method of growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same field, which reduces risks and gives insurance against failure of one of the crops.

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28

Intercropping

The practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in the same field in rows.

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29

Green Manure

Consisting of green plants, commonly leguminous plants, which are ploughed along with the ploughing of soil.

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Farmyard Manure

A mixture of decomposed cattle dung (excreta and urine), left over fodder (cattle feed) and litter.

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31

Compost

Compost is prepared by burying all available organic materials in a pit with alternating layers of soil and leaving it to rot.

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32

Vermicompost

Vermicompost is the compost broken down by earthworms.

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Fertilizers

Fertilizers are human-made chemical substances that contain one or more nutrients essential for plant growth.

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34
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