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What is memory?

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138 Terms


What is memory?

The persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage and retrieval of information

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What is the information processing model?

There are three steps in memory: Encoding, storage and retrieval

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What is sensory memory?

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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What is encoding?

The processing of information into the memory system

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What is elaboration?

Encoding which links a stimulus to other information to make the memory meaningful

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What is automatic processing?

Unconscious encoding of incidental information (space, time, frequency)

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What are the three types of encoding?

semantic, acoustic, visual

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What is semantic encoding?

The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

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What is acoustic encoding?

The encoding of sound, including sound of words

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What is visual encoding?

The encoding of picture images

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What is a flashbulb memory?

A clear memory of an emotionally significant event

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What is short term memory?

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly. Eg. the seven digits of a phone number while dialing

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What is long term memory?

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system

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What is the levels of processing theory?

The idea that memory depends on how information is encoded, with better memory being achieved when processing is deep than when processing is shallow.

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What is storage?

The retention of encoded information over time

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What is the multi-store model of memory?

There is sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

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What is long-term potentiation?

The more a memory is utilized, the more potential strength the neuron has to remember the memory again

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What is working memory?

The place where we sort and encode information before transferring it to long-term memory or forgetting it; Also known as short-term memory

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What is retrieval?

Locating and recovering information from long-term memory

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Who created the idea of working memory?

George Miller

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How much information can be held in working memory?

7 pieces of information

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What are the coping mechanisms used to lengthen working memory?

Chunking and rehearsal

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What is chunking?

Organizing items into meaningful and manageable units

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What is rehearsal?

Continuously repeating information to keep it in short-term (working) memory

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What is iconic memory?

Visual sensory memory, lasting less than a second

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What is echoic memory?

Auditory sensory memory, lasting 3-4 seconds

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What is the serial position effect?

The tendency for recall to be affected by the order of encoding

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What is amnesia?

loss of memory

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What is implicit memory? What is it also called?

Memory that is separate from conscious recollection; Procedural memory

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What is explicit memory? What is it also called?

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"; Declarative memory

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What part of the brain processes explicit memory?

The hippocampus

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What are the two types of long-term memory?

Explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (procedural) memory

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What part of the brain processes implicit memory?

The cerebellum

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What is recall?

A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier

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What is recognition?

A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned

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What is relearning?

A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

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What is priming?

The unconscious activation of particular associations in memory

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What are retrieval cues?

External information that helps bring stored information to mind

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What is deja vu?

the sense that "i've experienced this before"

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What is mood-congruent memory?

The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood. Eg. When you are in a good mood, your memories are perceived as happier than usual

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What is proactive interference?

Previous Memories interferes with new memories

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What is retroactive interference?

Recent Memories interferes with the old memories

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Does long term memory have a capacity?

No, it is limitless

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What are the two types of declarative memory?

semantic memory and episodic memory

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What is semantic memory?

Type of declarative memory; includes facts, general knowledge and grammar rules

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What is episodic memory?

Personal experiences and events

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What is the primacy/recency effect?

Primacy effect: more likely to recall items at the beginning of a list. Recency effect: more likely to recall items at the end of a list.

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What is the von Resteroff effect?

Tendency to remember interesting middle items on a list

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What psychologist implanted false memories by asking misleading questions?

Elizabeth Loftus

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What is memory reconstruction?

Process of bringing up old memories

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What is state-dependent memory?

Memories that are recalled under the conditions under which it was formed. Eg. You recall memories that you made when you are drunk only when you become drunk again

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What is the misinformation effect?

Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

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What is source amnesia?

Attributing the wrong source to an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

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What is the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve?

Memory fades quickly, but then the speed at which it fades levels out

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What is retrograde amnesia?

Inability to remember events PRIOR to trauma

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What is anterograde amnesia?

inability to remember events AFTER trauma

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What is infantile amnesia?

The inability to recall memories before 3 years old

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What are concepts?

Mental groupings of similar objects, events, or people

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What is a prototype?

A mental image or best example of a category

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What is an algorithm?

A set of well-defined logical steps that guarantees solving a particular problem

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What is heuristic? What are the two types?

Mental shortcuts that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; Two types are representativeness heuristic and availability heuristic

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What is the difference between a heuristic and an algorithm?

Heuristics are speedier than algorithms but are more error-prone

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What is confirmation bias?

The tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions

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What is a fixation? What are the two types of fixation?

Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective; Two types are mental set and functional fixedness

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What is a mental set?

A tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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What is functional fixedness?

The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.

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What is the representative heuristic?

Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes

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What is the availability heuristic?

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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What is overconfidence?

To overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements

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What is framing? What are its effects?

The way an issue is posed; This can significantly affect decisions and judgments.

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What is belief bias?

The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning

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What is belief perseverance?

The tendency to cling to one's beliefs even when faced with contrary evidence

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What is convergent thinking?

The ability to give the "correct" answer to standard questions that do not require significant creativity. Eg. Tasks in school and multiple-choice tests

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What is divergent thinking?

A thought process used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions

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What is creativity?

The ability to produce new and valuable ideas

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What is cognition?

Mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information

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What is cognitive psychology?

Study of mental processes

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What are natural concepts?

Imprecise mental classifications that develop out of everyday experiences

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What are artificial concepts?

Concepts that are defined by a very specific set of characteristics

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What are schemas?

Mental frameworks that are used to organized and interpret information

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What is assimilation?

Translating incoming information into a form we can understand

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What is accommodation?

Adapting current knowledge structures in response to new experiences

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What is fixation?

The inability to see a problem from a new perspective

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What is language?

Spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate with one another

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What is a phoneme?

The smallest unit of sound in a language

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What is a morpheme?

The smallest unit of sound that carries meaning in a language

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What is grammar?

The rules of language

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What is semantics?

The set of rules which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language

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What is syntax?

The rules for the order of words in a language - English syntax- the white cat, Spanish syntax- el gato blanco

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What is the babbling stage? What age does it begin?

The stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds unrelated to the household language; Begins at about 4 months of age.

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What is the one-word stage? What age does it begin?

The stage of speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words; Begins at about 1 to 2 years of age.

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What is the two-word stage? What age does it begin?

The stage of speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements; Begins at about 2 years of age

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What is telegraphic speech?

A child's first word combinations, which omit unnecessary words. This makes them sound like a telegraph

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What is the critical period for language learning?

In early childhood

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What is Chomsky's theory of language acquisition?

The ability to learn a language is genetically programmed into everyone. Everyone has an innate language acquisition device.

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What is the theory of linguistic relativity? Who proposed it?

The hypothesis that the language we learn determines the way we think; Proposed by Benjamin Lee Whorf

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What is intelligence?

The ability to learn from past experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

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What is Spearman's theory of intelligence?

There is one main intelligence known as general intelligence, which is the general factor behind all of our mental abilities.

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What is the g factor in intelligence?

The ability to reason and solve problems; general intelligence (g)

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What is the s factor in intelligence?

The ability to to excel in certain areas; specific intelligence (s)

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