Science 2.3 "What Are Gymnosperms?"

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<p>evergreen</p>

evergreen

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19 Terms

1
<p>evergreen</p>

evergreen

a plant that retains its leaves all year long

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2
<p>deciduous</p>

deciduous

a plant that drops its leaves in the fall

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3

conifer

a cone-bearing plant w/ needlelike or scalelike leaves

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4

gymnosperms

  • a group of vascular plants w/ exposed seeds that is divided into four divisions

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5

gymnosperm divisions

Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta, Ginkgophyta

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6

Cycadophyta

  • a gymnosperm division of mostly everygreen plants

  • ex: cycad

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7
<p>cycad</p>

cycad

  • in the cycadophyta division

  • an evergreen plant w/ stems that resemble thick trunks

  • height is 2 m - 20 m

  • some leaves are similar to palm leaves, but aren't actually palm trees

  • it bears cones

  • grows in tropics + subtropics

  • leaves' base is arranged in a tightly packed spiral

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8

palm tree and cycad

have a difference of the palm tree being a flowering plant while the cycad is a cone bearer

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9

ginkgophyta

  • a gymnosperm division w/only one living species: Ginkgo biloba

  • males bear cones w/ pollen

  • females produce soft, fleshy cones that look like apricots + have a slightly rotten odor that helps the tree complete its life cycle

  • its nickname "maidenhair" comes from its fan-shaped leaves

  • deciduous + turn golden yellow in fall

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10

gnetophyta

  • a gymnosperm division that has 3 living genera: Ephedra, Gnetum, Welwitschia

  • are mostly evergreens

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11
<p>ephedra</p>

ephedra

a genera of Gnetophyta w/ shrubs + vines that grow in dry areas of the world

  • ex: ma huang - a Chinese plant used for the drug, ephedrine, for decongestants

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12
<p>gnetum</p>

gnetum

a genera of Gnetophyta w/ woody vines, shrubs, + small trees that grow in tropical + desert climates

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13
<p>welwitschia</p>

welwitschia

a genera of Gnetophyta w/ only one plant named "Welwitschia" + are only found in the desert of Southwestern Africa

  • it has a large storage root + 2 long permanent leaves which are torn by the wind to make it look like many leaves

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14

coniferophyta

  • a division of gymnosperms of mainly evergreen trees or shrubs

  • they dominate enormous forests in Europe, Asia, + North America

  • height: 8 m (ex: pygmy pine in New Zealand) to 110 m (redwoods in California)

  • male + female cones develop on different branches of the same tree or shrub (unlike other 3 divisions)

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15

scales

indiviual plates that cones are made of and contains the reproductive structures

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16
<p>female cones</p>

female cones

woody, large, easy to see cones, + produce ovules (eggs)

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17
<p>male cones</p>

male cones

smaller cones + produce pollen

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18

gymnosperm life cycle

  • reproduce w/ seeds

  • gametophyte stage of reproduction occurs within cones (differs from moss because it is inside + not outside)

  • produces both male + female cones

  • doesn't need water for fertilization due to pollen transported by wind

  • while seed forms, the embryo develops in the protected + moist enviornment of a female cone

  • a supply of food + water inside the embyo will allow it to grow into a new gymnosperm

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19

alternation of generations in conifers

  1. pollen forms on the male cone scales (gametophyte stage)

  2. ovules (eggs) form at the base of scales of female cones + mature to form eggs. (gametophyte stage)

  3. In spring, released pollen from male cones are carried by wind to female cones + get pollinated. It will sprout a pollen tube + reach the female gametophyte. The gametophyte will release two sperm cells. One will unite w/ the egg + form a zygote

  4. A sporophyte zygote develops into an embryo + then into a seed in the female cone that is protected w/ a thick seed coat. It will release the seeds in right conditions

  5. The seeds fall to the ground + sprout into a new gymnosperm sporophyte

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