Unit 4: Political Patterns and Processes

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Country

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65 Terms

1

Country

An identifiable land area.

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2

Nation

A population with a single culture, also known as a culture group.

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3

State

A population under a single government, implying sovereign territory.

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4

Nation-state

A single culture under a single government, sometimes representing a singular contemporary culture.

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5

Sovereignty

Full independence from outside control, holding territory, and having international recognition.

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6

Multi-national states

Made up of different nations represented by various culture groups.

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7

Nationalism

Derives from an existing culture group desiring political representation or independence.

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8

Stateless nations

Culture groups not included or allowed a share in the state political process.

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9

Federal states & confederations

Provide military protection, administer foreign diplomacy, and regulate trade.

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10

Unitary system

A single centralized government with ultimate authority lying with the central government.

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11

Microstates

Sovereign states with a small size but holding the same position as larger states.

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12

Autonomous regions

Parts of nations granted freedom from central authority for various reasons.

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13

Semi-autonomous regions

Have the same freedom as autonomous regions but to a lesser degree.

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14

Supranationalism

Two or more sovereign states aligned together for a common purpose.

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15

Supranational organizations

Formed for trade alliances, military cooperation, and diplomacy.

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16

Territoriality

The expression of political control over space.

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17

Citizenship

The legal identity of a person based on the state where they were born or naturalized.

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18

Political boundaries

Expressions of political control that must be definable and clear.

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19

Enclave

A minority culture group concentrated inside a country dominated by a different, larger culture group.

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20

Exclave

A fragmented piece of sovereign territory separated by land from the main part of the state's territory.

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21

UNCLOS

United Nations Conference on the Law of the Seas, standardizing oceanic boundaries.

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22

Territorial sea

Sovereign territory from shore out to the 12-nautical-mile limit.

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23

Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

Exclusive economic rights from shore out to the 200-nautical-mile limit.

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24

Physical border

Natural boundaries such as rivers, lakes, oceans, mountains, or deserts.

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25

Cultural border

Estimated boundaries between nations, ethnic groups, or tribes.

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26

Geometric border

Boundaries surveyed mostly along lines of latitude and longitude.

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27

Frontier

Open and undefined territory.

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28

State morphology

The shape of a country impacting its society and external relations.

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29

Annexation

Addition of territory as a result of a land purchase or when a territorical claim is extended through incorporation

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30

Capitals

Seat of government where political power is centered.

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31

Suffrage

Voting rights (which have varied historically from state to state).

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32

Gerrymandering

Irregularly shaped districts designed to manipulate voting outcomes.

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33

Feudalism

Political economy with aristocracy controlling land and wealth, and peasants working the land.

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34

Absolute monarchy

Supreme aristocrat serving as both head of state and head of government.

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35

Constitutional monarchy

A form of government where the supreme aristocrat remains head of state, but the leader of the elected parliament is the head of government.

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36

Prime minister (premier)

The leader of the elected parliament who appoints senior members of parliament to be ministers or secretaries of executive-branch departments.

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37

Free-market democracies

Countries with elected-representative parliamentary systems, commonwealth countries, and other constitutional monarchies or republics that rely upon balancing the relationship between the elected-representative government, its citizens, and business interests.

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38

Republics

Governments free of aristocracy or monarchical control and are fully under the control of the "common" people, as opposed to hereditary monarchy.

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39

Separation of powers

Where the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government are held by separate groups of people that keep each other in check.

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40

Marxism

Karl Marx's political-economic theories aimed at creating a class-free society with no inequalities in terms of wealth or power.

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41

Communism

A political-economic system where the state owns all land and industry, and the government directs economic productivity, aiming for equal distribution of wealth.

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42

Planned economy

An economy that does not rely on supply and demand like capitalism, but rather the central government calculates the economic needs and sets quotas for production.

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43

Geopolitics

The global-scale relationships between sovereign states.

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44

Centripetal forces

Factors that hold together the social and political fabric of the state.

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45

Centrifugal forces

Factors that tear apart the social and political fabric of the state.

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46

Balkanization

The political landscape going from a larger state to several smaller states.

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47

Neocolonialism

A contemporary form of colonialism based on economic pressure rather than political control.

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48

Heartland-Rimland model

A model designed to define the global geopolitical landscape and determine areas of potential future conflict.

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49

Buffer states

Lands that protect hostile countries by creating a surrounding buffer of sympathetic countries.

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50

Terrorism

Planned violent attacks on people and places to provoke fear and cause a change in government policy.

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51

State terrorism

When governments use violence and intimidation to control their own people.

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52

Primary Commodity of Conflict

The resource that countries are willing to fight over.

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53

Definitional Dispute

When border treaties are interpreted two different ways by states.

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54

Locational Dispute

Dispute caused by movement of a natural border.

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55

Operational Dispute

When borders are agreed on but passage across the border is a problem.

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56

Allocational Dispute

When a dispute is caused by a resource lying directly on the border accessible by both sides.

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57

Antecedent Boundary

Boundary created by historical events or cultural factors

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58

Relic Boundary

Former political border that no longer serves as a boundary due to changes in political or territorial divisions.

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59

Subsequent Boundary

Boundary that is established after the settlement of an area, often resulting from political or social changes.

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60

Superimposed Boundary

Boundary created by outside forces, often disregarding existing cultural or ethnic divisions.

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61

Delimitation Process

Borders are put on the map

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62

Demarcation Process

Markers are placed on the ground to show where borders lie.

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63

Expatriate Population

Citizens living outside of their borders.

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64

Free-trade union

No taxes charged on goods and services flowing between member states.

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65

Open-border policy

No border-control between member states.

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