AP Biology Terms (Complete Set)

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Nucleic acids

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335 Terms

1

Nucleic acids

Nucleic acids are macromolecules essential for the storage and transmission of genetic information in living organisms. Made up of simple unit of nucleotides.

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2

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is essential for building cells and producing certain hormones in the body.

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3

Carbohydrates

________ are organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

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4

Haemoglobin

________ is a molecule in the blood that helps distribute oxygen to the tissues in the body.

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5

Hydrolysis

________ is when polymers can also be broken down into monomers.

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6

Monosaccharides

A monosaccharide is the simplest form of carbohydrate, consisting of a single sugar molecule..

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7

DNA

DNA is a molecule that carries genetic instructions. It has a double helix structure made of nucleotides containing adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine..

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8

Monomers

Monomers are the individual building blocks of a polymer.

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9

concentration of hydrogen

The ________ ions in a solution will indicate whether it is acidic, basic, or neutral.

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10

Electrons

________ are negatively charged (-) particles.

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11

RNA

________ is essential for protein synthesis.

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12

Protons

________ are positively charged (+) particles.

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13

Neutrons

________ are neutral particles as they donot carry any electric charge.

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14

Phospholipids

________ contain two fatty acid "tails "and one negatively charged phosphate "head.

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15

Polymers

________ are chains of building blocks in macromolecules.

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16

Glucose

________ is an important part of the food we eat, and it is the product made by plants during photosynthesis.

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17

Amino acids

________ are building blocks of proteins.

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18

Side chain polarity

________ affects whether an amino acid is more hydrophobic or more hydrophilic.

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19

Polysaccharides

A polysaccharide is a complex carbohydrate composed of multiple monosaccharide (simple sugar) units linked together.

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20

Acidic solution

A solution is acidic if it contains a lot of hydrogen ions (H+).

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21

Atoms

________ are the unit of life and are the building blocks of the physical world.

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22

pH scale

The ________ is logarithmic and represents a tenfold change in hydrogen ion concentration.

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23

alpha helix

An alpha helix is a common secondary structure in proteins, characterized by a tightly coiled, helical shape.

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24

fatty acid

A fatty acid is a type of molecule that serves as a building block of lipids, which are a class of biological molecules that include fats, oils, and phospholipids.

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25

disaccharide

A disaccharide is a type of carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharide molecules joined together through a chemical bond known as a glycosidic bond.

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26

polypeptide

A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

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27

triglyceride

A triglyceride is a type of lipid (fat) and is composed of three fatty acid molecules chemically linked to a glycerol molecule.

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28

Proteins

Proteins are large molecules made of amino acids, serving various roles such as enzymes for chemical reactions, structural support, and signaling in the body.

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29

Lipids

Lipids are a diverse group of organic molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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30

ph scale

The ________ or alkalinity of a solution can be measured using a pH scale.

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31

covalent bond

A(n) ________ is formed when electrons are shared between atoms.

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32

Adhesion

The ________ contributes to another property of water known as surface tension.

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33

Elements

Elements are pure substances that consist of only one type of atom.

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34

Just add water

To break up the disaccharide and form two monosaccharides

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35

Lipid Saturation

The extent of saturation in a lipid can affect its structure and function.

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36

Cohesion

Cohesion refers to the tendency of molecules of the same substance to be attracted to each other.

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37

Surface Tension

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38

beta-plated sheet

A beta-plated sheet is a protein secondary structure where adjacent amino acid chains align in a sheet-like formation, held together by hydrogen bonds.

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39

Neutrons

________ are uncharged particles.

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40

Phospholipids

A phospholipid is a type of lipid molecule composed of two fatty acid chains, a glycerol backbone, and a phosphate group.

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41

Peroxisomes

________ are organelles that detoxify various substances, producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a byproduct.

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42

Prokaryotes

________ do not have any membrane- bound organelles.

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43

Lysosomes

________ are made when vesicles containing specific enzymes from the trans Golgi fuse with vesicles made during endocytosis.

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44

Glucose

________ and ions such as Na+ and K+ are also transported across the plasma membrane via membrane proteins.

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45

ATP

Transport proteins form pumps that use ________ to actively transport solutes across the membrane.

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46

fluid filled sacs

They are ________ that store water, food, wastes, salts, or pigments.

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47

genetic material

The ________ in a prokaryote is one continuous, circular DNA molecule that is found free in the cell in the nucleoid.

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48

Secondary

________ active transport occurs when something is actively transported using the energy captured from the movement of another substance flowing down its concentration gradient.

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49

Cytoplasm

________ within a plant cell is usually taken up by a large vacuole which is the central vacuole.

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50

Microtubules

________ are made up of the protein tubulin, participate in cellular division and movement.

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51

Aquaporins

________ are water- specific channels.

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52

Carbohydrate side chains

________ are found only on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.

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53

Tonicity

________ is used to describe osmotic gradients.

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54

Receptor

________- mediated endocytosis: involves cell surface ________ that work in tandem with endocytic pits that are lined with a protein called clathrin.

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55

Microfilaments

________ are important for movement.

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56

Light microscopes

________ are used to study stained or living cells.

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57

nucleus

The ________ is usually the largest organelle in the cell.

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58

plant cells

Vacuoles serve multiple functions in ________.

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59

plasma membrane

In exocytosis, a cell ejects waste products or specific secretion products, such as hormones, by the fusion of a vesicle with the ________, which then expels the contents into the extracellular space.

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60

Adhesion

________ proteins form junctions between adjacent cells.

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61

natural flow

Movement against the ________ is called active transport.

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62

Bacteria

________ and archaea are examples of prokaryotes.

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63

large ingested particles

They have sacs that carry digestive enzymes, which they use to break down old, worn- out organelles, debris, or ________.

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64

Cilia

________ and flagella have locomotive properties in single- celled organisms.

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65

Bulk flow

________ is the one- way movement of fluids brought about by pressure.

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66

Pinocytosis

________: the cell ingests liquids.

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67

Ribosomes

________ can be either free floating in the cell or attached to another structure called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

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68

Exocytosis

________ is basically reverse endocytosis.

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69

hypertonic solution

A(n) ________ has more total dissolved solutes than the cell, while a hypotonic solution has less.

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70

Kidney dialysis

________ is a specialized process by which the blood is filtered by using machines and concentration gradients.

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71

solute concentration

If an environment is isotonic to the cell, the ________ is the same inside and outside.

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72

Phagocytosis

________: the cell takes in solids.

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73

Chloroplasts

________ contain chlorophyll, which gives plants their characteristic green color.

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74

ER

The ________ is a continuous channel that extends into many regions of the cytoplasm and provides mechanical support and transportation.

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75

Dialysis

________ is the diffusion of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane.

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76

Channel

________ proteins form channels that selectively allow the passage of certain ions or molecules.

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77

ligand

When a particle, or ________, binds to one of these receptors, the ________ is brought into the cell by the invagination, or "folding in "of the cell membrane.

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78

lipid bilayer

The ________ has hydrophilic outside and hydrophobic on the inside so only hydrophobic things can pass that central zone.

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79

Electron microscopes

________ are used to study detailed structures of a cell that can not be easily seen or observed by light microscopy.

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80

Receptor proteins

________ such as hormones, serve as docking sites for arrivals at the cell.

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81

surface area

The ________ and volumes of cells can be calculated using typical geometry formulas.

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82

shape of a cell

The ________ is determined by a network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton.

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83

surface markers

Cell ________ such as glycoproteins, and some lipids, such as glycolipids, are exposed on the extracellular surface and play a role in cell recognition and adhesion.

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84

Lysosomes

________ are also essential during programmed cell death called apoptosis.

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85

plasma membrane

The ________ is important because it regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

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86

ribosomes

The ________ are sites of protein synthesis.

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87

Prokaryotes

________ also have small ribosomes.

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88

Ribosomes

________ are round structures composed of two subunits, the large subunit and the small subunit.

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89

There are two distinct types of cells

prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells

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90

This arrangement of phospholipids and proteins is known as the fluid

mosaic model

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91

It is affected by

pressure potential (Ψp) and solute potential (Ψs)

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92

Solute Potential of a Solution Ψs = −iCRT where

i = ionization constant C = molar concentration R = pressure constant T = temperature in Kelvin (°C + 273)

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93

Pinocytosis

the cell ingests liquids

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94

Phagocytosis

the cell takes in solids

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95

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

involves cell surface receptors that work in tandem with endocytic pits that are lined with a protein called clathrin

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96

Example

movement of blood through a blood vessel and the movement of fluids in xylem and phloem of plants are examples of bulk flow

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97

hydrogen ions

As the ________ move back into the stroma through ATP synthase, ATP is produced.

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98

Photosynthesis

________ is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy.

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99

Autotrophs

________ are using light and ADP and phosphates (thats phosphorylation) to produce ATP.

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100

Yeast cells

________ and some bacteria make ethanol and carbon dioxide.

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