Bio Test #3

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Eukaryotic Cells

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23 Terms

1

Eukaryotic Cells

complex, large, has a nucleus, DNA is in a membrane bound nucleus, has organelles, multi or uni cellular.

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2

Prokaryotic Cells

small, no nucleus, has DNA but its not in nucleus, only unicellular, ex: bacteria

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3

nucleus

controls most cell processes and contains DNA, it is membrane bound, and gives info for protein synthesis

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4

cytoplasm

portion of cell outside of nucleus

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5

ribosome

particles of protein and RNA than make proteins, involved with protein synthesis

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6

endoplasmic reticulum

theres 2 (the rough and smooth) and rough ER is protein specific because it has ribosomes, it is where lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins are produced

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7

golgi apparatus

vesicles are shipped to GA then is sorted and the GA packages the proteins and then ships them to their final destination

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8

vacole

large membrane bound sac used for storage

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9

lysosomes

small organelles containing enzymes that break down macromolecules into smaller compounds

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10

mitochondria

powerhouse of the cell, converts chemical energy from food into compounds the cell can use (cellular respiration)

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11

chloroplasts

capture energy from sunlight and convert it into food that contains chemical energy (photosynthesis), found only in plant cells

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12

cell membrane

all cells have one, made of a lipid bilayer that is selectively permeable, flexible but strong, provides structure, composed of a phospholipid bilayer, has cholesterol, has proteins in the membrane, has glycoproteins, has glycolipids

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13

cell wall

only in plant cells (sometimes in prokaryotic), support layer surrounding cell membrane, contains pores that allow H2O, CO2, O2, etc. to pass through

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14

cell wall function

supports, shapes, protects

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15

cell wall composition

carbohydrates (cellulose)

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16

selectively permeable

regulates which substances go in and out of the cell

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17

phospholipid bilayer

has hydrophilic head (contains phosphorus) and hydrophobic tail (fatty acids)

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18

membrane proteins (proteins in the membrane)

proteins that can send to nearby cells or receive signals from outside their cell. they can also serve as anchors for other proteins inside the cell.

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19

glycoproteins

proteins with carbohydrate chains that can serve as cell recognition markers and can help neighboring cells interact or stick to eachother

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20

glycolipids

lipids with carbohydrate chains that are used as cell recognition markers.

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21

cholesterol

a hydrophobic lipid molecule that changes the fluidity of the membrane

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22

phospholipid

lipids with hydrophobic tails and hydrophilic heads that form two layers in the membrane

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23

transport or channel proteins

proteins that help carry substances across the membrane or allow molecules to pass through a channel.

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