Biology Test 2 Vocab

studied byStudied by 37 people
5.0(3)
get a hint
hint

Character

1 / 51

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
52
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
52 Terms
1
New cards

Character

Detectable inheritable feature e.g. flower colour

New cards
2
New cards

Trait

Character determined by an allele e.g. purple or white flower

New cards
3
New cards

Dominant trait

Trait that only requires one copy the gene to express itself (capital letters) e.g. brown eyes

New cards
4
New cards

Recessive trait

Trait that requires both copies of the gene to express itself (lower case letters) e.g. blue eyes

New cards
5
New cards

True breeding

Fertilization that produces offsprings with the same traits

New cards
6
New cards

Allele

Alternate form of a gene. Responsible for variations in the inherited characters

New cards
7
New cards

Locus

Location of a gene

New cards
8
New cards

Phenotype

Physical expression of a gene

New cards
9
New cards

Genotype

Organism's genetic makeup

New cards
10
New cards

Homozygous

Having two identical alleles of a gene (BB or bb)

New cards
11
New cards

Heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a gene

New cards
12
New cards

Punnett square

Table showing all possible combinations of alleles.

New cards
13
New cards

Test crossing

Test done to determine if an organism expressing the dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous

New cards
14
New cards

Monohybrid cross

Cross of heterozygous F1s with their parents differering in only one gene

New cards
15
New cards

Dihybrid cross

Cross of heterozygous F1s with their parents differing in two genes

New cards
16
New cards

Incomplete dominance

Heterozygotes show an intermediate phenotype e.g. red pink white flower

New cards
17
New cards

Codominance

Heterozygotes express both alleles e.g. AB blood type

New cards
18
New cards

Multiple alleles

More than two possible alleles for a gene e.g. Iᴬ, Iᴮ, i blood genotypes

New cards
19
New cards

Pleiotropy

A single gene has multiple phenotypic effects e.g. sickle cell anemia

New cards
20
New cards

Epistasis

Gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at another locus e.g. black brown blond dog

New cards
21
New cards

Polygenic inheritance

Two or more genes leads to a single phenotypic character e.g. skin color

New cards
22
New cards

Autosomal recessive disorder

Phenotype that is expressed by two recessive alleles found on an autosome

New cards
23
New cards

Autosomal dominant disorder

Phenotype that is expressed by only one disease allele on an autosome

New cards
24
New cards

X-linked trait

Phenotype that is expressed by recessive alleles in the X chromosome

New cards
25
New cards

Lyon hypothesis

X-Inactivation occurs randomly in embryonic cells

New cards
26
New cards

Pedigree

Diagram showing the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.

New cards
27
New cards

Fimbriae

Appendage to attach to host and gain entrance

New cards
28
New cards

Sex pili

Structure for bacterial conjugation

New cards
29
New cards

Photoautotroph

Organism that uses light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances.

New cards
30
New cards

Chemoautotroph

Organism that produces energy by oxidation of inorganic compounds

New cards
31
New cards

Chemoheterotroph

Organism that consumes organic molecules for energy and ATP

New cards
32
New cards

Saprophytic

Organism that absorb nutrients from dead organisms

New cards
33
New cards

Symbiosis

Interaction between smaller symbiont and larger host

New cards
34
New cards

Obligate aerobe

Bacteria that require oxygen to grow

New cards
35
New cards

Facultative anaerobe

Bacteria that grows with or without oxygen (is capable of fermentation)

New cards
36
New cards

Obligate anaerobe

Organism that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen

New cards
37
New cards

Colonial

Collection of unicellular organisms living together

New cards
38
New cards

Charophyte

Group of green algae most closely related to land plants

New cards
39
New cards

Volvox

<p>Colonial chlorophyta algae exhibiting division of labour between cells</p>

Colonial chlorophyta algae exhibiting division of labour between cells

<p>Colonial chlorophyta algae exhibiting division of labour between cells</p>
New cards
40
New cards

Chlamydomonas

<p>Unicellular chlorophyta algae with two flagella</p>

Unicellular chlorophyta algae with two flagella

<p>Unicellular chlorophyta algae with two flagella</p>
New cards
41
New cards

Phragmoplast

A group of microtubules

New cards
42
New cards

Rhizoid

Primitive roots of the moss

New cards
43
New cards

Stomata

Pores for gas exchange

New cards
44
New cards

Waxy cuticle

Very waxy (lipid) material which prevents leaves from drying out in the sun

New cards
45
New cards

Desiccation

Drying out of a living organism

New cards
46
New cards

Vascular system

Composed of the xylem and the phloem

New cards
47
New cards

Xylem

Nonliving vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals up using passive transport

New cards
48
New cards

Phloem

Living vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic substances up and down using active transport

New cards
49
New cards

Lignin

Complexe polysaccharide which enables plants to have support and grow tall

New cards
50
New cards

H2O fertilization

The sperm needs water to meet the female gamete

New cards
51
New cards

Pollen

Male sperm in plants

New cards
52
New cards

Seed

Fertilized egg (zygote) in a protective coat which provides nutrition and protection

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 84 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 55 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 32282 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(497)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard141 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard188 terms
studied byStudied by 785 people
Updated ... ago
3.9 Stars(13)