Viking test

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Vikings

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Vikings

  • Came from Scandinavia which in modern day in Denmark, Norway or Sweden

  • Also known as Northman or Norse between 9th and 11th centuries, their ferocious attacks stroke fear into people around Europe

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What evidence exists about Vikings?

  • Early written records of Viking raids

  • Did not read/write much until Christianity appeared

  • Viking writing is called runes which was inscribed on rocks

  • By the end of Viking age stories about them appeared in writing which is known as sagas

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Archaeological Discoveries

  • Standing Stone: Some were carved with runes, signs and images and the outline of a boat

  • Viking burial: remains, treasure, boats and grave goods

  • Remain of settlements

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Viking geography

  • Extensive areas of mountains and forests

  • lakes and fjords(long narrow intelts of sea between steep cliffs)

  • large groups of islands and expanses of outlines

  • Moraines( rocks deposited by glaciers)

  • areas of flat low-lying land (in Denmark)

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Climate

  • Days were shorter in winter and 20 hours of sunlight in summer

  • Gulf stream helps keep temperatures mild and prevents harbours from freezing in winter

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Viking Homelands

  • were in Northen Europe and Scandinavia

  • Natural features of Scandinavia helped Viking society

  • Big distance from central Europe helped them not become influenced

  • AD 790 was beginning of Viking age

  • Vikings travel on boat because many islands inland was densely packed with forests

  • Made up of different Kingdoms

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Jarls

Rulers and wealthy members of the community. The title Konungre (king) was the title given to the chief Jarl

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Karls

Middle class and made-up majority of the population. They could be, fishermen, shipbuilders, weavers etc. Karls were Vikings that took part in raids.

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Thralls

They were slaves who had little rights who were captured in raids. If they did not obey the law, they would be beaten or killed.

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Everyday life Housing

  • Viking houses have camouflage for protection from invaders

  • There are no windows or chimneys because it would get rid of the heat

  • There is a fire in the middle to produce heat evenly throughout the house

  • There is smoke all over the house to keep the humidity and is there because there are no windows

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Coprolite

is fossilized poo. is direct evidence of another species, it shows whether if it is an omnivore, carnivore or herbivore. Vikings had a balanced diet but with lots of meat.

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Government (the thing)

  • legal system kept peace, importance was placed in soicetal norms or saagas

  • Memorise the laws and guilty can lessen sentence if they did not remember

  • killing people in daytime is not murder

  • Announce the person you kill to get no sentance

  • take away weapons for no fighting

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Fueds

If a man was killed family avenges his death

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Duels

settled arguments. Defeated when blood touched the ground

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Fines

Pay it for dispute. Paid in front of the public

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Outlaw

Serious crime they live in the wilderness

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Odin

one-eyed ruler Asguard known as Alfather. God of war, wisdom, poetry and has powerful magic

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Figg

Wife of Odin. Goddess of women, the home, spring and immortal youth.

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Thor

Son Odin. God of thunder, lighting, stroms, oak trees, fertility and hunting. Also helps saliors and farmers

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Loki

God of mischief and trickery

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Frey and Frega

Vanir Gods, twin sister and brother. Gods of fertility, love, harvest, prosperity and the reproduction of ancestors.

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Viking Religion

  • Vikings made human sacrifices to appeal the gods. The sacrifices were war prisoners.

  • Asguard is filled halls and places. Valhalla which is the hall of the bravest slain heroes.

  • Slain warriors are brought from the battlefield to Valhalla on a pangasius with Valkyries

  • You train in Valhalla to get ready to fight in Ragnarök

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Burial Customs

  • Old people believed that there was a place in Norse myth called Valhalla where dead heroes have banquets and feasts

  • Valhalla was in the palace of the greatest god Odin

  • only way to go to Valhalla is to die in battle. After death they would be burned with their belongings

  • Dead body of a Viking chief would be put aboard his boat which would be buried or burned

  • Life expectancy was low so believed in the afterlife

  • Ancestors would care for them

  • 7 days after someone died their family would have a feats

  • Cremation because believed the smoke would take you to Valhalla

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Viking Writing and Literature

  • Fathork is the runic alphabet called for the first 6 letters in the runic row

  • Originally had 24 letters but in 9th century it was simplified

  • Modern people would think of G as uppercase, but Viking can think of it in different ways

  • Runes are carved graffiti-like writing onto historical buildings

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Sagas

-- The stories were shared verbally and were sometimes complicated narritives -Vikings were civilized and took interest in arts

  • Favourite arts are myths, heroic legends, folk tales, family and local history

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Viking Longships

  • Helped conquer lands and originally made from canoes

  • It inspired from Roman ships but made them better

  • After Rome got defeated, Viking had less enemy’s and upgraded their boats to make it stronger, easier and cheaper to build

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Design of the longship

  • Made them lighter but strong so they can carry them onto land

  • Sails made with dyed cotton with blood and coated with animal fat to make it water resistant

  • Front of the longship had a dragon head to strike fear into their enemies

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Raid on Lindisfarne

  • It is the fist major Viking attack on Britan and Ireland

  • Raided and isolated but significant monastery

  • Attacked a holy place which shocked Christians and provoked fear in people

  • They killed the monks and took their treasure

  • They attacked monasteries because it was a place with lots of treasure with little security

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Viking Weapons

  • Spears had a slim iron blade an can catch spears in mid air

  • Used a v-shape formation to quickly kill their enemies

  • Iron battle axe can cut through iron

  • Raids took place a dawn to their victims could not escape

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Beserk

Out of control with anger or excitement; wild or frenzied.

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Viking Conquest and their impact

  • took pleasure humiliating the Christians

  • Within 30 years of Viking arrival they controlled Northern and Eastern Europe

  • To maintain peace English had to pay taxes called Danegeld

  • They learnt Christian festivals so they can do raids on those dates

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Dane law

It is a part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Angelo Saxons

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Viking age ended because

  • The raids slowly started to stop

  • Viking raids less effective European armies well-trained and defences strengthened

  • Less people able to go raiding

  • Against Christian morals

Because of the fewer raids the became Danes, Swedes and Norwegians etc.

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