Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 1

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Anatomy

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51 Terms
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Anatomy

the structure of body parts (also called Morphology)

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Physiology

the function of the body parts; what they do and how they do it

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Movement

self initiated change in position

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Responsiveness

Ability to sense changes within, or around the organism and react to them(irritability)

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Growth

increase in body size

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Reproduction

parents produce offspring / producing new individuals; sexual reproduction

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Respiration

obtaining oxygen(O2), using it to release energy from food substances, and getting rid of wastes; Waste product is CO2 & Water

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Digestion

Chemically changing (breaking down) food substances, and getting rid of wastes; waste in solids

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Absorption

passage of digested products (food substances) through membranes and into body fluids; most of this happens in the small intestine

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Circulation

movement of substances throughout the body

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Assimilation

changing absorbed substances into chemically different substances

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Excretion

removal of liquid waste- Ex. urine, crying(tears), sweating, breathing(water vapor)

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Digestion v Assimilation

digestion happens first before assimilation

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Metabolism

all the physical and chemical changes

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Bodily Needs

  1. Oxygen

  2. Heat

  3. Water

  4. Food

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Homeostasis

tendency of the body to maintain a stable, balanced, internal environment. "sameness" 98.6 normal EX. The further away you are from ____ the closer you are to death. Shivering when cold creates heat. When you are hot you sweat to cool down(it needs to evaporate). Glucose/blood sugar levels need to be normal. Heart rate: 60-80 bpm(normal)

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Atom

1st level of organization; Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur

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Molecule

2nd level of organization; water H2O, Glucose C6H12O6, Carbon Dioxide CO2

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Cell

3rd level of organization; smallest living unit of life- Unicellular, multicellular; Eukaryotic cells & prokaryotic cells

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Tissue Level

4th level of organization; 4 types- Muscle Tissue(bicep), Epithelial (covers/skin), Nervous tissue (brain), connective tissue(cartilage, tendons, ligaments, bones, veins, blood)

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Organ Level

5th level of organization; small intestine, liver, kidney, pancreas

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Organ System

6th level of organization; digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system, reproductive system

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Organism

7th level of organization; organism or naked person

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Integumentary System

Anatomy: skin or integument(hair & nails) Physiology: protection from things like radiation; removes metabolic waste(sweat); maintains temperature

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Skeletal System

Anatomy: Bones (206), Joints (femur, tarsal) Physiology: support & protect vital organs; stores minerals, attachment for muscles; blood cell formation

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Muscular System

Anatomy: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle Physiology: moves bones, maintains posture, supports skeleton, generates heat

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Nervous System

Anatomy: brain, spinal cord, nerves, special sense organs, neuron Physiology: receives, interprets & responds to sensations to maintain homeostasis; monitors & controls body activities; electrical messenger

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Endocrine System

Anatomy: endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal; pancreas; gonads, thymus Physiology: Hormones, released by endocrine glands cause a particular change in the body; maintains long-term homeostasis; chemical messengers

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Cardiovascular/Circulatory System

Anatomy: heart, blood, vessels, arteries, veins, capillaries Physiology: transports substances throughout the body

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Lymphatic System

Anatomy: Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils Physiology: provides immunological protection from foreign particles, removes excess fluid from tissues

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Digestive System

Anatomy: mouth, salivary glands, stomach, liver Physiology: Physically/chemically breaks down molecules to be small enough to be absorbed by your blood stream

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Respiratory System

Anatomy: nose, pharynx, trachea, lungs Physiology: provides for gas exchange of CO2 & O2 between the exterior & bloodstream, inhalation & exhalation

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Excretory System

Urinary System bladder, kidneys, ureter, urethra to remove liquid metabolic waste from the body such as urea, water, and salt. Filters blood & creates urine as a waste product. Eliminates waste, regulates blood volume & blood pressure

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Reproductive System

produces gametes(sperm & egg), includes vagina, penis, testes, ovaries, vas deferens, fallopian tubes, uterus. Also produces hormones such as estrogen & testosterone.

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Axial Portion

head, neck, trunk (spinal cord)

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Appendicular Portion

arms & legs (hand, foot, hips, shoulder blade)

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Serous Membrane

two layered, covers cavity & organs

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Parietal

outer layer (covers cavity)

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Visceral

inner layer(lines the organs)

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Serous Fluid

lubricating fluid

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Pleura

lungs

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Pericardium

heart

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Peritoneum

organs(abdominopelvic region)

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Sagittal Plane

views= medial (inside) lateral (outside)

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Transverse Plane

views= superior (top) inferior (bottom)

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Coronal Plane

views= anterior (front) posterior (back)

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Anatomical Position

palms up, feet slightly apart

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Proximal

closer to trunk (middle of body)

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Distal

further away from trunk

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Ipsilateral

same side

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Contralateral

different or opposite sides

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