Cells, diffusion, osmosis

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31 Terms

1

light microscope

It uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify an image of a small sample. They are the oldest type of microscope.

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2

scanning electron microscope (SEM)

a scientific instrument that produces high-resolution images of the surface of solid materials by scanning a focused beam of electrons across the specimen and detecting the interactions between the electrons and the sample.

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3

transmission electron microscope (TEM)

a scientific instrument that produces high-resolution images of the internal structure of specimens by transmitting a beam of electrons through the sample and detecting the resulting electron interactions.

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4

cell

the basic structural and functional unit of life, typically microscopic in size, consisting of a membrane-bound organelles and genetic material, responsible for carrying out vital processes necessary for an organism's survival and reproduction.

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5

organelle

a specialized subunit within a cell that performs specific functions, such as energy production, protein synthesis, or waste disposal, contributing to the overall organization and operation of the cell. Organelles are typically membrane-bound structures found in eukaryotic cells.

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6

mitochondrion/ mitochondria

cellular organelles responsible for producing energy in the form of ATP through the process of cellular respiration.

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7

chloroplast

organelles found in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis, converting light energy into chemical energy stored in sugars.

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8

form/ function

refers to the physical structure or appearance of an organism or its parts, while ____ pertains to the specific role or purpose that a biological structure or process serves within an organism's body or ecosystem.

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9

membrane


The ______, or plasma membrane, is a semipermeable barrier that surrounds the cell, regulating the passage of substances in and out of the cell and maintaining its internal environment.

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10

nucleus

a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA), directing cellular activities such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.

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11

bacterium/ bacteria

single-celled microorganisms found in various environments, characterized by their diverse shapes and roles in processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling, and pathogenicity.

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12

magnification

refers to the process of enlarging the apparent size of an object or image, typically achieved through optical or digital means, allowing for finer detail to be observed or analyzed.

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13

diffusion


the passive movement of particles or molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, resulting in their even distribution over time.

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14

osmosis

the movement of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration, equalizing the concentration on both sides of the membrane.

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15

solution


refers to a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances, with one (the solute) dissolved in another (the solvent), typically water, resulting in a uniform distribution of molecules throughout the mixture.

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16

solute

a substance that is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution, contributing to its chemical composition without undergoing a change in state.

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17

dissolve

means to mix a solute into a solvent, resulting in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are evenly dispersed and no longer visible as separate entities.

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18

permeable

refers to a material or membrane that allows substances to pass through it, either freely or selectively, depending on factors such as size, charge, or concentration gradient.

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19

dilute


means to decrease the concentration of a solute in a solution by adding more solvent, resulting in a less concentrated mixture.

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20

concentrated

refers to a solution containing a relatively high amount of solute compared to the solvent, resulting in a dense or strong mixture.

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21

solvent

a substance capable of dissolving other substances (solutes) to form a solution, typically the liquid component of a solution in which the solute is dissolved.

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22

concentration gradient


refers to the gradual change in the concentration of a solute within a solution over a distance, typically from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

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23

factor

refers to any element or condition that can influence a biological process, behavior, or outcome, including genetic, environmental, or experimental variables.

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24

rate

refers to the speed or frequency at which a biological process or reaction occurs, often measured as the amount of change per unit of time.

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25

net movement

refers to the overall direction or result of the movement of molecules or particles across a membrane or within a system, considering both inward and outward movements.

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26

equilibrium

refers to a state of balance or stability, where opposing forces or processes are in equal measure, resulting in no net change.

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27

hypertonic

refers to a solution with a higher concentration of solutes compared to another solution, causing water to move out of cells by osmosis, potentially leading to cell shrinkage or dehydration.

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28

hypotonic

refers to a solution with a lower concentration of solutes compared to another solution, causing water to move into cells by osmosis, potentially leading to cell swelling or bursting.

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29

isotonic

refers to a solution with the same concentration of solutes as another solution, resulting in no net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane when the solutions are separated by it.

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30

cytoplasm

gel-like substance found inside cells, containing various organelles and structures, where cellular processes occur, excluding the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.

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31

vacuole

a membrane-bound organelle found in cells, serving various functions such as storage of nutrients, waste management, and maintaining cell structure and pressure.

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