Identification II

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Anthropometry

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101 Terms

1

Anthropometry

The first scientific method of criminal identification

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2

Alphonse Bertillon

Anthropometry is Attributable to _____.

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3

fingerprinting system

Bertillonage as a scientific method of personal identification was ultimately supplanted by the ______.

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4

Descriptive data

Color of hair, eyes, complexion, shape of nose, ears and chin.

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5

Body measurement

Height, AP diameter of head and trunk, span of outstretched arms, length of middle finger, left little finger, left forearm and left foot, length and breadth of right ear, and color of left iris (11 such measurements).

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6

Body marks

Moles, scars and tattoo marks.

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7

Photographs

Front view and right profile of the head are also taken

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8

Dactylography

The study of fingerprints as a method of identification

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9

Sir William Herschel

In 1858, ____ was the first to use Dactylography.

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10

Sir Francis Galton

In 1892, ______ formalized Dactylography.

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11

Loop Pattern

A loop is formed when one or more ridges entering from the same side recurving, existing from the same side.

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12

Radial loop

The loop where the ridges start from the radial bone or thumb side of the hand and recurving around the core and exiting to the same side of the hand.

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13

Ulnar loop

The loop where the ridges start from ulnar loop or little finger of the hand and recurving around the core and exiting to the same side of the hand.

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14

Arch Pattern

the ridges run from one side of the print to another side, forming an arch like formation.

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15

Plain arch (A)

The ridges run from left side to other side with a small rise at the center like a hill or hump.

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16

Tented arch (T)

In this ridges entering from left side making an upright thrust at the center flowing towards the right side of the pattern.

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17

Whorl Pattern

Almost 30-35 % of populations have whorl pattern. Whorl is having one core and 2 deltas.

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18

Composite Pattern

the composites are combinations of all the above-mentioned patterns.

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19

Central pocket loop

a combination of a loop and a whorl.

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20

Lateral pocket loop

a double loop pattern in which two loops are formed either by overlapping or surrounding one another and both the loops after terminating exiting from the same side of the delta.

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21

Patent (visible) print

Needs no processing to be clearly recognizable as a fingerprint. It is often.

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22

Plastic (impression/indentation) print

A recognizable fingerprint indentation in a soft surface, such as butter, soap, cheese, paint, putty or tar.

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23

Latent print

It requires additional processing to be rendered visible and suitable for comparison.

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24

Locard’s Principle of Exchange

‘When two objects come into contact with each other, there is always some transfer of material from one to the other’; hence, the great importance of visualizing them onto useful evidence.

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25

Composition of latent print residue

Palmer and planter surfaces are hairless and sebaceous gland-free, but sweat glands are abundant, producing latent fingerprint residue.

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26

Vacuum metal deposition (VMD)

Most sensitive, being capable of detecting monolayer of fat by sequential deposition of a thin coating of thermally evaporated gold followed by zinc.

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27

Fingerprint powders

One of the oldest techniques for detecting fresh latent prints. It is widely used, but insensitive.

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28

Superglue fuming

Can be used on any nonporous surfaces, and is particularly useful on surfaces such as rough or grained plastic surfaces which cannot be easily treated using VMD.

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29

Small particle reagent (SPR)

Consists of a suspension of molybdenum disulfide suspended in aqueous detergent solution, which is applied by spraying or immersion.

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30

Iodine fuming

One of the oldest and cheapest methods, and can develop recent prints on porous and non-porous surfaces

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31

DFO (1,8-diaza-9-fluorenone)

It is the most sensitive reagent available for detecting fingerprint on porous surfaces.

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32

Ninhydrin

It is a widely used chemical which reacts with amino acids and produces a deep blue or purple color known as Ruhemann’s purple.

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33

Powders

Smooth papers may be treated with black or magnetic powder, although these will usually detect recent fingerprints.

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34

Superglue fuming

may be used on some smooth surfaces such as cigarette packets.

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35

Physical developer

It is the only available technique for detecting fingerprints on a wet porous surface.

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36

Radioactive sulfur dioxide

Useful for fabrics and adhesive tapes.

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37

Sudan black

Useful for surfaces contaminated by grease or foodstuffs.

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38

Osmium tetraoxide

Useful for both porous and non-porous surfaces.

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39

Electronography

This technique involved dusting the skin surface with lead (or iron) and then exposure to long wave X-rays (Grenz rays).

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40

Scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer

can be used for imaging of latent fingerprints; it is of little use for casework because its application often requires a small area to be cut from the exhibit and coated with a conductive material to prevent the sample charging.

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41

static threshold

Resolution in 1973 discouraged '_____' identification ideology.

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42

Level 1

The ridge flow (pattern type, ridge count and focal areas such as delta, core and orientation).

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43

Level 2

The ridge path (Galton details or ‘points’) includes ridge endings, bifurcations, dots, combinations of the above and their relationship to one another.

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44

Level 3

Poroscopy and edgeoscopy both involve detail and are used in latent prints by examiners even without their conscious knowledge.

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45

Ridgeology

refers to friction ridge identification that is associated with all the ridges on the volar areas and not just on the fingertips.

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46

Fingerprint Bureau

The first ‘_______’ in the world was officially established in Kolkata on 12th June 1897 at Writers’ Building

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47

Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

A storage, search, retrieval and exchange system for finger and palm print electronic images and demographic data

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48

Poroscopy

A specialized study of pore structure found on the papillary ridges of the fingers as a means of identification.

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49

Edgeoscopy

Coined by Salil K Chatterjee in 1962; the examination of papillary ridge edges to identify them.

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50

Footprints

Skin patterns of toes and heels are as distinct and permanent as those of fingers.

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51

Forensic podiatry

Specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification.

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52

Cheiloscopy

The study of lips.

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53

Type I

represents grooves running vertically over the lips.

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54

Type II

represents the branched grooves.

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55

Type III

represents the intersected grooves.

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56

Type IV

represents the reticular pattern, much like a wire mesh.

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57

Type V

represents all other patterns. These are irregular non-classified patterns.

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58

Trichology

Examination of hair.

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59

Root

The portion of hair at the base of skin. It has a base known as bulb, embedded inside the hair follicle.

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60

Shaft

The portion of hair lying above the skin and tapers to terminate at the free end as tip.

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61

Cuticle

Outermost layer, consists of thin nonpigmented microscopic scales.

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62

Cortex

Middle layer, consists of longitudinally arranged elongated cells.

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63

Medulla

Innermost layer, composed of keratinized remains of cells.

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64

Natural fibers

These are subdivided into 3 classes

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65

Artificial fibers

These are subdivided into syntheticpolymer, natural-polymer and other fibers.

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66

Medullary index (MI)

The ratio of the diameter of the medulla to the diameter of the cortex.

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67

Scalp hair

Long, soft, taper from root to tip, split ends, and circular on cross section.

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68

Beard and moustache

Thicker, straight, blunted tip, and triangular on cross section.

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69

Axillary and pubic hair

Stout, short, lack of uniformity, and curly with frayed or split ends.

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70

Eyebrow, eyelashes and nostril hair

Short and stiff, thick, tapering abruptly, and triangular on cross section.

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71

Body hair

Soft, fine and flexible, lack of uniformity of medulla, milder pigmentation, and narrow tip.

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72

Lanugo hair

Hair of the newborn are fine, downy, soft, non-pigmented, non-medullated, and cuticular scales have smooth edges.

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73

Adult hair

These are coarser, pigmented and medullated having a complex cuticular pattern.

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74

Gray hair

These are apparent after the age of 40, and are devoid of any pigment.

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75

Superimposition

Technique applied to determine whether the recovered skull is that of the person in the photograph.

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76

Comparison image

It is enlarged to the size of the unknown skull and positioned in the same orientation as the face shot during photographic superimposition.

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77

Computer-assisted superimposition

Which digitizes the skull and face photos using a video computer and suitable software, compares the two images morphologically by image processing.

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78

Forensic Odontology

It deals with the application of dentistry to aid in the administration of justice.

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79

Nature of bite marks

Comprise of a crop of punctate haemorrhages varying from small petechiae to large ecchymoses merging into a confluent central bruise.

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80

Human bite

It is semicircular or crescentic owing to the front teeth (incisors and canines) with a gap on each side due to upper and lower jaw separation, whereas an animal bite is deep parabolic arch or U-shaped.

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81

Self-inflicted bite marks

These are present on accessible parts of the body, e.g. shoulders or arms, usually seen in psychiatric patients or teenage girls.

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82

Accidental marks

These are resulting from falls on to the face and during fits, biting of tongue and lips may also be there.

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83

sucking action

In sexual assault, _____ during bites reduces the air pressure in the centre and produces multiple petechial haemorrhages due to rupture of small capillaries and venules

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84

Photograph

Bite mark is photographed from different angles.

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85

Swabbing of saliva

To identify or exclude assailant from ‘secretor’ status who exude blood group substances in the saliva.

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86

Impression of bite mark

Plastic substance (rubber or silicone based) or plaster of Paris is laid over the bite mark that hardens and produces a permanent negative cast of the lesion.

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87

Dental profiling

A forensic dentist's "picture" of a person's general features when dental records are unavailable and other methods of identification are not possible.

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88

Universal (Cunningham) system

Follows the plan advocated by American and International Society of Forensic Odontology.

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89

Palmer’s notation

Adult teeth are numbered 1 to 8, with deciduous teeth indicated by a letter A to E.

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90

Haderup system

It is similar to Palmer notation, except it uses a plus sign (+) to designate upper teeth and a minus sign (-) for lower.

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91

FDI (Federation Dentaire Internationale)-two-digit system

A two-digit notation capable of indicating tooth and quadrant was developed.

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92

Modified FDI system

In this method, the tooth and quadrant are designated by a separate number.

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93

Diagrammatic or anatomical chart

In this, each tooth is represented by a pictorial symbol that gives the same number of tooth surfaces as those on that particular tooth in mouth.

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94

Palatoscopy/palato-print/rugoscopy

It is the study of palatal rugae in order to establish identity.

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95

Fronal sinus print

It is unique to a particular individual, and these are permanent and fixed and rarely alter following infection or injury.

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96

Vascular grooves and sutural pattern

The sutural pattern on the skull bone particularly of sagittal and lambdoid sutures are complex and are individualistic.

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97

Ear print

It is the study of shapes of the ear lobules and tips of ears as well as the hardness or softness of the helix and lobules, and hairiness of the helix and tragus.

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98

Nose print

The lines on the nose and shape of the tip of nose are considered to be individualistic

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99

Nail print

It is the study of the depressions and elevations (striations), numbers, distribution and dimensions of the ridges on the surface of the nails which are considered to be individualistic.

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100

EV method of identification

The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) and vector cardiogram (VCG) trace expresses cardiac features that are unique to an individual.

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