A&P Exam 2 (Lymphatic System)

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44 Terms

1

Lymph

leaked fluid/plasma proteins, chylomicrons, cell debris/pathogens/cancer cells

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2

How much fluid/plasma proteins is forced out of the capillary bed and into interstitial space daily?

3 liters

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3

Cardiovascular system function

maintain blood volume and retain “energy expensive” blood proteins the liver makes (i.e. albumen)

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4

Chylomicrons

absorbed fat (fatty acids and reformed glycerol) packaged from the small intestine

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5

When does increased uptake of cell debris/pathogen/cancer cells occur and why?

during inflammation because during tissue repair capillaries swell and allow more things to enter

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6

Lymphatic vessels

one way transport toward the heart

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7

Lymph capillaries

microscopic, closed vessels that weave between cells and blood capillaries; more permeable and larger than blood capillaries

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8

Explain the permeable/larger structure of lymph capillaries

cells are not tightly joined (form flap-like mini valves) and collagen filaments anchor cells; pressure of increased interstitial fluid opens gaps in lymphatic walls

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9

Pathway of lymphatics

capillaries → collecting vessels → lymph trunks → lymph ducts

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10

Right lymphatic duct

drains upper right arm and right side of head/thorax

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11

Thoracic duct

drains left side of body above diaphragm and entire body inferior to diaphragm

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12

What do both ducts empty into and what happens to the lymph?

both empty into subclavian veins on respective veins, lymph → plasma

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13

Pathway of fluid from GI to plama

fluid → small intestine → blood/plasma → interstitial fluid → lymph vessels → lymph → subclavian veins → plasma

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14

Lymphatic vessel structure

thinner walls and more valves (one-way) than blood veins, more anastomosis

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15

What is the purpose of one-way valves?

help lymph movement toward heart and prevent backflow

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16

Lymph transport

similar to return through veins: milking action of active skeletal muscles, breathing, pulsations of nearby arteries, and rhythmic contractions of smooth muscle in walls of lymphatic trunks/ducts

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17

When does lymph pooling occur?

when an individual is sedentary for a long period of time

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18

Lymphoid tissue

reticular connective tissue with T and B lymphocytes/macrophages in the spaces of the network

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19

Reticular connective tissue

type of loose connective tissue, forms a network for lymphocytes/macrophages, dominates all lymphoid organs except thymus

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20

T and B lymphocytes

monitor lymphatic stream for presence of antigens and then mound an attack

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21

T cells

reside temporarily before going out to patrol the body; cell mediated response

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22

B cells

clone rapidly when activated by an antigen and release antibodies; can also make antibodies in lymph/blood

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23

Lymph nodes

100s of bean shaped organs less than 1 inch in length that cluster along lymphatic vessels

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24

Regions with lymph nodes

cervical, axillary, inguinal

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25

Lymph node function

filter lymph; have fewer efferent vessels draining than afferent vessels supplying to slow down lymph and allow for lymphocytes/macrophage to work

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26

Spleen

in upper left abdominal cavity below the diaphragm, largest single mass of lymphatic tissue

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27

Functions of the spleen

lymphocytes production/immune response, blood cleansing, and storage/release of platelets

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28

What can result when the spleen is removed?

immunocompetence, increased change for infection

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29

Blood cleansing function of the spleen

macrophages remove pathogens/debris from the blood (occurs in white pulp) and spleen removes defective and old RBCs (occurs in red pulp)

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30

How much of the body’s supply of platelets is stored and released by the spleen?

up to one third

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31

Thymus

site for T cell bootcamp, secretes hormones, only lymphoid organ that doesn’t directly fight antigens

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32

Hormone secretion of the thymus

stimulate T-lymphocytes to become immunocompetent before entrance into lymph nodes, consider endocrine and lymphoid (+bone marrow) organ

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33

Blood-thymus barrier

prevents antigens from coming into premature contact with immature T-cells (prevention of cloning)

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34

Tonsils

swellings around entrance to pharynx

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35

Function of tonsils

gather and remove pathogens entering pharynx from inhaled air and food

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36

Types of tonsils

Palatine (2), pharyngeal (adenoids), and lingual (2)

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37

Which tonsils are largest and most often affected

palatine

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38

Which tonsils are located on the posterior nasopharynx (behind the posterior nasal aperture)?

the pharyngeal (adenoids)

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39

Which tonsils are located at the base of the tongue?

lingual

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40

Two other examples of lymphoid tissue

Peyer’s patches and the appendix

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41

Peyer’s patches

walls of ileum of small intestine

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42

Appendix

offshoot of first part of large intestine

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43

Lymphoid tissue function

protect digestive tract from large amount of pathogens that enter, generate many “memory” lymphocytes for long term immunity

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44

MALT

mucosa associated lymphoid tissue; tonsils/peyer’s patches/appendix is the largest collection

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