BIO NOTES!!!

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anatomy

The study of body structure and form

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Level of human structure

atom molecules organelles cells tissues organs organ systems organism

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integumentary system

skin, hair, nails; protection

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skeletal system

bones, cartilage; support and movement

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Muscular System

skeletal muscles; movement and stability

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lymphatic system

lymph nodes, vessels; recovery of excess tissue fluid, defense against disease

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respiratory system

nose, lungs; oxygen and carbon dioxide

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digestive system

intestines, liver; nutrient breakdown and absorption

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nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves; internal communication

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endocrine system

glands; hormone production

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circulatory system

heart, blood vessels; distribution of nutrients, oxygen, wastes

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urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra; elimination of wastes

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male reproductive system

testes, vesicles, prostate gland; production & delivery of sperm

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female reproductive system

ovaries, uterus, mammary glands; production of eggs

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anatomical position

standing feet flat arms at sides palms, face, & eyes facing forward

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sagittal plane

divides body into left and right

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median (midsagittal) plane

Cuts the body into EQUAL left and right planes

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parasagittal plane

Divides body into UNEQUAL right and left sides

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frontal (coronal) plane

anterior and posterior portions

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transverse plane

superior and inferior portions

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Anterior

toward the front

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posterior

toward the back

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ventral

toward the anterior side

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dorsal

toward the posterior side

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superior

above

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inferior

below

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cephalic

toward the head

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rostral

toward the forehead or nose

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caudal

toward the tail or inferior end

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medial

Toward the midline of the body

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lateral

Away from the midline of the body

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proximal

Closer to the point of attachment

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distal

away from the point of attachment

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ipsilateral

on the same side of the body

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contralateral

on the opposite side of the body

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superficial

near the surface

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deep

away from the surface

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axial region

head, neck, trunk

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trunk

thoracic and abdominal

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4 quadrants

right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

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9 regions

right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, hypogastric, left inguinal

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appendicular region

shoulder girdle upper limbs pelvic girdle lower limbs

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cranial cavity

contains the brain

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vertebral canal

contains the spinal cord & enclosed by vertebral column

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viscera

internal organs

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meninges

three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped

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thoracic cavity

contains heart and lungs

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Mediastinum

space between the lungs occupied by heart

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pleural cavity

contains the lungs

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pericardial cavity

contains the heart

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Pericardium

Membrane surrounding the heart

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pleura

Membrane surrounding the lungs

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abdominopelvic cavity

abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

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abdominal cavity

The superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity

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pelvic cavity

inferior to abdominal cavity

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gross anatomy

structures of the body that are visible to the naked eye

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microscopic anatomy

relies on the use of microscopes

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radiologic anatomy

study of the body using x-ray imaging

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systematic anatomy

study of the body through different systems

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regional anatomy

study of the body through different regions

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human variations

situs solitus situs inversus situs perversus

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situs solitus

normal arrangement

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situs inversus

reversed position of organs

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situs perversus

one organ atypically positioned

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11 organ systems

integumentary skeletal muscular lymphatic circulatory urinary endocrine digestive nervous male & female reproductive

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cytology

study of structure and function of cells

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basal surface

bottom

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apical surface

top

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lateral surface

sides

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light microscope

uses visible light to produce an imge

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transmission & scanning electron microscope

rely on beams of electrons instead of light

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major components of cells

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

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Cytoplasm

cytoskeleton organelles inclusions cytosol

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plasma membrane function

controls what comes in and out of the cell

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inclusions

stored cellular products

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Cytosol (intracellular fluid)

Fluid portion of cytoplasm

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extracellular fluid

fluid outside the cell

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interstitial fluid

fluid between cells

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intracellular face

the side of the plasma membrane that faces the cytoplasm

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extracellular face

side that faces outward

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phospholipid bilayer

hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails

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cholesterol function in membrane

stabilizes the membrane; fluidity in membrane

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Glycolipids

cell recognition

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membrane proteins

integral and peripheral

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