Behavioral Ecology

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Behavior

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44 Terms

1

Behavior

change in activity of an organism in response to a stimulus

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2

Behavioral biology

the study of the biological and evolutionary bases for changes in behavior

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3

ethology

biological study of animal behavior

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4

innate behavior

instinctual behavior that is not altered by changes in the environment

ex) a bird’s song

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5

learned behaviors

behavior that responds to changes in environment

ex) when a bird sings

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6

reflex action

action in response to direct physical stimulation of a nerve

ex) knee-jerk of taps on patella tendon

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7

kinesis

undirected movement of an organism in response to a stimulus

ex) insect moves more rapidly when temperature is high

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8

taxis

directed movement in response to a stimulus

ex) moth being attracted to light at night

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9

fixed action pattern

series of instinctual behaviors that, once initiated, always goes to completion regardless of changes in the environment

ex) stickle-back fish attacking color red

ex) goose egg rolling

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10

migration

long-range seasonal movement of animal species

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11

signals

method of communication between animals including those obtained by the senses of smell, hearing, sight, or touch

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12

courtship displays

visual display used to attract a mate

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13

aggressive display

visual display by a species member to discourage other members of the same species or different species

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14

distraction displays

visual display used to distract predators away from a nesting site

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15

kin selection

sacrificing one's own fitness so that one's genes will be passed on to future generations by relatives

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16

intersexual selection

selection of a desirable mate of the opposite sex

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17

intrasexual selection

competition between members of the same sex for a mate

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18

monogamy

mating system whereby one male and one female remain coupled for at least one mating season

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19

polygyny

mating system where one male mates with many females

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20

polyandry

mating system where one female mates with many males

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21

habituation

ability of a species to ignore repeated stimuli that have no consequence

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22

imprinting

identification of parents by newborns as the first organism they see after birth

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23

conditioned behavior

behavior that becomes associated with a specific stimulus through conditioning

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24

classical conditioning

association of a specific stimulus and response through conditioning

ex) Pavlov dog experiment

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25

operant conditioning

learned behaviors in response to positive and/or negative reinforcement

ex) dog training

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26

cognitive learning

knowledge and skills acquired by the manipulation of information in the mind

ex) rats solving mazes, crows solving multi-step puzzles for food

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27

Ernst Mayr

described two general categories of questions related to biological causation of behaviors

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28

proximate causation

understanding external and internal stimuli causing a behavior

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29

ultimate causation

understanding value of behavior for survival/reproduction (fitness)

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30

animal communication

process in which a signal from one individual modifies the behavior of a recipient individual

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31

deceitful communication

signaler is attempting to exploit the receiver; success is negative frequency-dependent

ex) hognose snake playind dead to avoid being eaten

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32

animal navigation

the ability of animals to accurately find their way to locations without instruments or maps

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33

piloting

use of familiar landmarks

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34

compass orientation

movement that is oriented in a specific direction

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35

true navigation

ability to locate a specific place on Earth’s specific

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36

circadian clock

an internal mechanism that maintains a 24-hour activity rhythm or cycle

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37

territory

an area that is actively defended and provides exclusive or semi-exclusive use of resource

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38

altruism

behaviors that have a fitness cost to the individual exhibiting the behavior and a fitness benefit to the receiver

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39

Br > C

Model for spread of altruistic allele (Hamilton's Rule) \n B= benefit to recipient \n r= coefficient of relatedness \n C= cost of altruism

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40

direct fitness

derived from generating offspring

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41

indirect fitness

Derived from helping relatives produce more offspring than they would on their own

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42

inclusive fitness

direct + indirect fitness

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43

delayed direct benefits

the production of offspring in the future; possible explanation for acting altruistically toward non-relatives

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44

reciprocal altruism

when individuals reciprocate altruistic behaviors toward each other; possible explanation for sacrificing fitness to help another individual

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