Physio- Ch 11 Endocrine Glands

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Describe the endocrine system

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Biology

46 Terms

1

Describe the endocrine system

the major physiological that controls the glands and cells that secrete hormones.

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2

define gland

a group of epithelial cells or an organ that synthesize and secretes chemical substances

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3

what are the two types of glands

endocrine and exocrine

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4

describe endocrine glands

  • ductless -secrete hormones into blood stream in order to travel to their target cell

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5

describe exocrine glands

have ducts

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6

Define hormones

a biologically active molecule that serves as a chemical messenger in the blood

(this causes a response to organs/cells)

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7

what does the pancreases secrete?

insulin and glucagon

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8

Describe the pathway hormones take

-released from the endocrine gland or cell into the interstitial fluid -diffuse from isf into blood to travel to target cell.

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9

Where is the pituitary gland found?

in the brain

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10

where is the hypothalamus found?

in the brain

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11

where is the thyroid gland found?

in the neck

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12

where is the adrenal gland found?

above the kidneys

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13

what does the adrenal cortex secrete?

Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

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14

what are the adrenal cortex's primary target organs

liver, muscle and kidneys

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15

What is the effect of glucocorticoids to their target cells?

(adrenal cortex)

influence glucose metabolism

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16

What is the effect of mineralocorticoids to their target cells?

(adrenal cortex)

promote Na+ retention and K+ excretion

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17

What does the adrenal medulla secrete?

epinephrine

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18

what is the target organ for the epinephrine?

Heart, bronchioles and blood vessels

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19

what effect does epinephrine have?

causes adrenergic stimulation

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20

what does the hypothalamus secrete?

releasing and inhibiting hormones

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21

what is the target organs for hypothalamus secreted hormones?

anterior pituitary

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22

what is the effects of the hormones in the hypothalamus?

Regulates secretion of anterior pituitary hormones

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23

What is does the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?

Trophic hormones

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24

what are the trophic hormones target organs?

Endocrine glands and other organs

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25

What effects do tropic hormones have?

stimulate growth and development of target organs and stimulate secretion of other hormones

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26

what does the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?

Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

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27

what are the target organs of the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin?

antidiuretic = kidney and blood vessels oxytocin = uterus and mammary glands

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28

what are the effects of antidiuretic hormones?

promotes water retention and vasoconstriction

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29

what are the effects of oxytocin hormones

stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary secretion units (milk ejection)

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30

what does the thyroid glad secrete?

T4, T3 and calcitonin

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31

what does the thyroid gland target?

most organs

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32

what are the effects of thyroid glands hormones?

growth and development of the basal rate of cell respiration and regulation of Ca2+ levels in blood

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33

What are the four structures of hormones?

amines, polypeptides (and proteins), glycoproteins, and steroids

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34

Describe amines

-are amino acids derived from tyrosine and tryptophan

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35

what type of hormones are classified as amines?

-Thyroid hormones -E and NE (adrenal glands) -Dopamine ( hypothalamus) -Melatonin (pineal glad)

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36

What hormones are classified polypeptides and proteins?

most hormones (ex. insulin and antidiuretic)

[think... poly= most]

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37

describe glycoproteins

proteins that are bound to carbohydrate groups (ex. thyroid-stimulating hormone)

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38

describe steroids.

they are lipids based on cholesterol

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39

what hormones are classified as steroids?

-sex steroids (gonads) -Corticosteroids and sex steroids (adrenal cortex)

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40

What are three things that control the rate of hormone secretion?

-Concentration of ions and/or nutrients -Nervous System -Hormones

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41

Hormones regulate ____ concentration of an ion or nutrient via _____ feedback

plasma // negative

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42

The autonomic nervous system controls secretion of hormones what two structures?

adrenal medulla and other endocrine glands

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43

How are hypothalamus and posterior pituitary regulated

they are directly regulated by neurons of the brain

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44

t/f hormones can regulate secretion of other hormones

True

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45

what gland stores and releases hormones that ate synthesized in the hypothalamus?

the posterior pituitary gland

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46

explain the hypothalamo-hypopyseal tract

Hormones are transported to capillaries in the posterior pituitary by axons in the hypothalamo-hypopyseal tract

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