Intro into Applied health Science test #4

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major components of physical fitness

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1

major components of physical fitness

cardiorespiratory endurance muscular endurance muscular strength body composition flexibility

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cardiorespiratory endurance

the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity

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3

body composition

amount of muscle, fat, bone, and other vital parts of the body

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4

muscular strength

the ability of a muscle to exert force

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5

muscular endurance

the ability of muscle to continue to perform without fatigue, and the ability to recover

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6

flexibility

the range of motion available at a joint

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7

glucose

high intensity uses more

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8

fat

recovery uses more

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9

maximal lactate steady state

max level of intensity without muscle fatigue

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10

crossover point

the point where energy systems switch from fat to glucose

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11

type I

slow oxidative fibers

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12

type IIa

fast oxidative glycolytic fibers

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13

type IIb

fast-twitch glycolytic fibers

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14

mitochondria

oxidative metabolism occurs in the

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15

cytoplasm

glycolysis occurs in the

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16

genetically

ratio of muscle fibers is ___________ determined

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17

anabolism

grow tissue

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18

catabolism

lose tissue

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19

diameter

changing ________ of muscle fibers not amount of muscle fibers

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20

contraction

when tension is developed in a muscle as a result of a stimulus

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21

isometric

contraction in a muscle that just causes tension no change in length (no movement)

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22

isotonic

tension with shortening or lengthening of the muscle (movement)

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23

concentric

muscle shortens (causes movement)

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24

eccentric

muscle lengthens (controls movement)

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25

agonist

muscle that causes joint motion (primary mover)

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26

antagonist

muscle that relaxes to allow joint motion, located opposite from the agonist

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27

homeostasis

the ability of the body to maintain a relative constant internal environment despite ever-changing external environment

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28

gerontology

the branch of science that investigates the aging process and tries to identify and control the variables that lead to functional decline

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29

chronological age

how old you are in years

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30

biological age

certain aspects of aging are under an individuals control (physiological age)

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31

apoptosis

programmed cell death

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32

integumentary system

skin thins, decrease in collagen and elastin reduction in nerve centers lost ability to control body temperature

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33

skeletal system

osteoclast activity outpaces osteoblast activity leading to osteoporosis increased risk of osteoarthritis reduction in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D

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34

muscular system

type I fibers: number of blood vessels, myoglobin, and mitochondria diminish type II fibers: function decreases

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35

regulatory systems

regulate all other body systems loss of neurons over time reduction in responsiveness to hormones less effective immune system irregular sleep patterns

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36

cardiovascular system

remove carbon dioxide, add oxygen increase in atherosclerosis blood vessels stiffen reduced capillaries increased edema heart stiffens causing increase in systolic blood pressure

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37

respiratory system

lung capacity decreases elastic turns to collagen

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38

digestive system

converts food into energy and gets rid of waste biggest effect is on teeth medications absorption of nutrients diminishes

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39

immune/lymphatic systems

increased risk of infection and decreased ability to fight infection slower wound healing higher rates of tumor development

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40

urinary system

kidneys become less effective bladder loses elasticity

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41

reproductive system

changes in estrogen levels

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42

isokinetic

isotonic contractions under controlled resistance

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43

precautions during exercise

inability to regulate body temperature loss of range of motion decrease in lean tissue loss of balance loss of cardiorespiratory functioning barriers to exercise

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44

sarcopenia

decrease in lean tissue

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45

behavior

anything an organism /living being does, thinks, or feels

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46

changing

_________ behavior is a multidimensional aspect of what we do

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47

transtheoretical model

change does not occur all at once (lengthy process) ~decisional balance ~stages of change ~processes of change ~self-efficacy

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48

stages of change

change is slow, each behavior goes through a cycle 5 steps

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49

precontemplation

stage 1 of change I can't/I won't 6 months from change

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50

contemplation

stage 2 of change I might 1 month from change

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51

preparation

stage 3 of change I will 1 week from change

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52

action

stage 4 of change I am currently doing behavior

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53

maintenance

stage 5 of change I have behavior actively for 6+ months

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54

relapse

moved back from 1 stage of change to a previous stage

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55

decisional balance

assesses the importance that you place on the potential advantage and disadvantages of behavior (pros and cons)

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56

self-efficacy

ones belief that they can set and meet a goal

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57

mastery

biggest indicator of self-efficacy

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58

mastery experience

performance experience previous experience

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59

vicarious experience

observational learning if we see people like us being successful it boosts our belief in ourselves

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60

sources of self-efficacy

mastery (performance) experience vicarious experience verbal persuasion physiological state emotional (mood) state

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61

health belief model

perceived threat perceived sustainability and perceived severity ~perceived benefits ~perceived barriers ~cues to action ~self-efficacy

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62

perceived sustainability

opinion on chances of getting a condition

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63

perceived severity

opinion on how serious a condition and its consequences are

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perceived benefits

belief in the efficacy of the advised action to reduce risk or seriousness of impact

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perceived barriers

opinion of the tangible and psychological costs of the advised action

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cues to action

strategies to cultivate readiness

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67

behavior

_________ depends on these 2 things ~value placed by you on a particular goal ~your estimate of the likelihood that a given action will achieve the goal

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68

social-ecological model

5 main environmental influences the things closest to use have the most influence

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69

intrapersonal

individual

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70

interpersonal

microsystem

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71

organizational

mesosystem

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community

exosystem

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73

public policy

macrosystem

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74

60

kids need ____ minutes of physical activity a day (including 3 days of bone loading/impact/resistance)

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75

adiposity

Higher engagement in MVPA may help to lower adiposity outcomes particularly in those at the upper extreme of the _________ distribution.

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76

BMI

_____ is considered an acceptable tool for diagnosing obesity in young people.

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77

physical activity

There is a prevailing view that ______________ levels are low in young people, and that engagement in physical activity has declined and time spent sedentary has increased in the last two decades.

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78

82.3%

What percentage of children who are obese in childhood remain obese as adults?

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79

increasing

Over the last four decades, the ___________ prevalence of obesity in young people has propelled the prevention and management of childhood obesity to the forefront of the global public health agenda.

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80

80.3%

What percentage of 13- to 15-year-old adolescents fall short of the current physical activity recommendations?

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81

higher

________levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are related to superior insulin sensitivity in children and adolescents.

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82

Paediatric obesity

What type of obesity is characterized by a chronic energy imbalance and is influenced by complex interactions between genetic, metabolic, behavioral and environmental factors.

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83

Weak to moderate

What is the relationship between objective measures of physical activity and physical fitness in children and adolescents?

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84

First two

What decades in life are characterized by considerable growth, maturation and development?

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85

reduces

Physical activity _______ the risk off disability and morbidity.

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86

Decreases

____________ in physical capacities do have important implications for the ability to perform activities of daily living.

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87

independently

Lifestyle and the ability to live ____________ may be compromised even in older adults free from disease due to a reduction in physical capacities.

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88

Decreased skeletal muscle tissue

Which of the following is not a factor which could be responsible for an improvement in maximal arteriovenous oxygen difference.

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89

strength

Cardiovascular fitness and muscular _________ are the two best-studied physical capacities in older adults.

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90

1%

What is the approximate rate of decline in VO2max per year?

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91

Exercise training

What can profoundly influence physical function in older individuals?

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92

8th

In what decade does 100m time start to decrease?

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93

increase

The ________ in VO2max is thought to be largely related to reductions in maximal heart rate and fat mass.

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94

maintain

Exercise training can help to _________ a high level of aerobic fitness in older adults it cannot prevent values from declining with age and the rate of decline in athletes who continue to train into old age is reported to be similar to that in sedentary individuals although there may be exceptions.

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95

Behavior

_________ is anything an organism or living being does, which includes actions, words, and manifestations of emotions and thoughts.

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96

Changing

_________ behavior is a multidimensional aspect of what we do.

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97

Precontemplation

Which of the following is NOT a main construct in the transtheoretical model?

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98

Contemplation

Which stage of change is "I might"

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99

Precontemplation

Which stage of change is "I can't or I won't"

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100

assesses

Decisional balance ________ the importance that you place on the potential advantage and disadvantages of a behavior

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