Reservoir Petrophysics with Hydrocarbon Phase Analysis | Midterm Exam

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Porosity

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70 Terms

1

Porosity

a measure of the storage capacity

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2

Absolute porosity

ratio of the total pore space

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Effective porosity

percentage of interconnected pore space

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4

Saturation

- fraction or percent of the pore volume

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5

Capillary forces

- forces retaining the water

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6

Critical oil saturation

- the saturation of the oil must exceed a certain value

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Residual oil saturation

- remaining oil left

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8

Movable oil saturation

- fraction of pore volume occupied by movable oil

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Critical gas saturation

- gas phase remains immobile until its saturation exceeds a certain saturation

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10

Critical water saturation

  • maximum water saturation

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11

Wettability

- tendency of one fluid

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12

Surface tension

- forces acting on the interface

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13

Interfacial tension

- when the interface is between two liquids

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14

Capillary pressure

- when two immiscible fluids are in contact

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15

Capillary Hysteresis

- pore spaces of reservoir rocks were originally filled with water

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Drainage process -

process of generating the capillary pressure

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Imbibition process

- reversing the drainage process by displacing the nonwetting phase

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Capillary hysteresis

- process of saturating and desaturating a core

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Transition zone

– vertical thickness

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Zero capillary pressure

- free water level

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Leverett J-Function

- dimensionless function of saturation

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22

Permeability

- property of the porous medium

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Darcy’s Law

- equation that defines permeability in terms of measurable quantities

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Darcy

– he developed a fluid flow equation

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1000 md

1 Darcy =

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Dry gas

- usually used in permeability determination because of its convenience, availability, and to minimize fluid-rock reaction

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Klinkenberg

- discovered that permeability measurements made with air

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Mean pressure

- defined as upstream flowing

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Jones (1972)

- studied the gas slip phenomena

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Weighted-Average Permeability

- averaging method is used to determine the average permeability of layered-parallel beds

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Warren and Price (1961)

- illustrated experimentally that the most probable behavior of a heterogeneous formation

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Calhoun (1976)

- suggested that in an ideal pore configuration

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Effective permeability

- as the saturation of a particular phase decreases, the permeability to that phase also decreases

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Effective overburden pressure

- pressure difference between overburden and internal pore pressure

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Rock-matrix compressibility

- defined as the fractional change in volume of the solid rock

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Rock-bulk compressibility

- defined as the fractional change in volume of the bulk volume

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Pore compressibility coefficient

- defined as the fractional change in pore volume of the rock

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Formation compressibility

- total compressibility

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Geertsma

- stated that in a reservoir only the vertical component

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Formation compressibility

- same order of magnitude

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Newman (1973)

- used 79 samples

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Reservoir heterogeneity

- variation in reservoir Properties

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Degree of homogeneity

- a number that characterizes the departure

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Dykstra and Parsons (1950)

- introduced the concept of the permeability variation coefficient

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Relative permeability

- the ratio of effective permeability

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Stone (1970)

- developed a probability model to estimate three-phase relative permeability

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Minimum oil saturation

- a nonzero residual oil saturation

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specific gravity

RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES

- the ratio of the gas density

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specific volume

RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES

- volume occupied by a unit mass

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density

RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES

- ideal gas mixture

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gas

RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES

  • homogeneous fluid

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Gas viscosity

RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES

  • measure of the internal fluid friction

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Petroleum reservoirs

the result of sedimentary processes

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Nonassociated Gas

- reservoirs that contain almost entirely natural gas

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Dry gas

- if the fluid at the surface still remains gas

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Wet gas

- if the surface pressures cause some liquid hydrocarbons to evolve

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Associated Gas

- almost all oil reservoirs except those classified as extra heavy or tars will produce some natural gas at the surface

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Unconventional Gas

  • geological setting and rock type

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Tight gas

- formed in sandstones

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Coalbed methane (CBM)

- methane gas that is found adsorbed in many buried coalbed deposits

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Shale gas

- found in organic shale rocks

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Natural gas phase behavior

- function of pressure, temperature, and volume

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Bubble Point Curve

- the curve that separates the pure liquid phase from the two-phase

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Dew Point Curve - the curve that separates the pure gas phase from the two-phase

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Critical Point

- the point on the phase envelope where the bubble point curve meets the dew point curve

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Cricondentherm

- the highest temperature at which liquid and vapor can coexist

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Cricondenbar

- the highest pressure at which a liquid and vapor can coexist

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Retrograde condensate systems and reservoirs

- unique phenomenon that appears only among hydrocarbon mixtures.

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Gas specific gravity

- the ratio of the molecular weight

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Viscosity

- a measure of a fluid’s internal resistance to flow.

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