unit 6-development

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developmental psychology

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Algebra

62 Terms

1

developmental psychology

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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2

zygote

the fertilized egg; enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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3

embryo

the developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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4

fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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5

teratogens

agents (chemicals/viruses) that can reach the embryo/fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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6

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

physical/cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant women’s heavy drinking

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7

habituation

as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus, interest decreases and they look away sooner

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8

maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior (uninfluenced by experience)

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9

stranger anxiety

fear of strangers that infants commonly display

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10

attachment

shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on seperation

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11

critical period

optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli/experiences produces normal development

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12

basic trust

a sense that the world is predictable/trustworthy; formed during infancy by experiences with responsive caregivers

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13

imprinting

process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life

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14

self-concept

our thoughts/feelings about ourselves in answer to the question “who am i?”

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15

authoritarian

parents are coercive, impose rules and expect obedience

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16

permissive

parents are unrestraining and use little punishment

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17

authoritative

parents are both demanding and responsive, set rules but encourage open discussion and allow exceptions

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18

cognition

mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating

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19

schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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20

assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

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21

accomodation

adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

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22

sensorimotor stage

stage (birth to 2 years old) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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23

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not seen

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24

preoperational stage

stage (2-7 years old) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of logic

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25

egocentrism

the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

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26

concrete-operational stage

stage of cognitive development (7-11 years old) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about abstract concepts

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27

conservation

principle that properties (mass, volume, number) remains the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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28

theory of mind

people’s ideas about their own/others’ mental states

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29

formal-operational stage

stage of cognitive development (12 years old) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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30

scaffolding

process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable

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31

autism

developmental disorder that involves impairments in social interaction and communication, challenges with sensory processing, and repetitive behaviors

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32

preconventional moral reasoning

morality is determined by consequences; rules are followed in order to avoid punishment or receive rewards

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33

conventional moral reasoning

morality is determined by social rules; people make moral judgments based on the norms/expectations of their group

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34

postconventional moral reasoning

morality is determined by core values; people make moral judgements based on what they believe is right

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35

adolescence

transition period from childhood to adulthood

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36

puberty

period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

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37

primary sex characteristics

features directly involved in reproduction (ovaries, testes)

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38

secondary sex characteristics

features not directly concerned with reproduction (facial hair, breast size)

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39

identity

our sense of self

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40

social identity

indicates who they are in terms of the groups to which they belong

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41

intimacy

the ability to form close, loving relationships

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42

emerging adulthood

period (18-25 years old) when many are no longer adolescents but have not yet achieved full independence as adults

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43

menopause

time where menstruation naturally stops; refers to biological changes women experience as ability to reproduce declines

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44

cross-sectional study

study in which people of different age groups are compared with one another

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45

longitudinal study

research in which the same people are restudied/retested over a long period

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46

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events (marriage, parenthood, retirement)

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47

jean piaget

theorist associated with schema and cognitive development

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48

harry and margaret harlow

theorists associated with attachment (monkeys)

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49

konrad lorenz

theorist associated with imprinting in animals

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50

mary ainsworth

theorist associated with attachment

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51

erik erikson

theorist associated with stages of psychosocial development

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52

lawrence kohlberg

theorist associated with levels of moral development

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53

lev vygotsky

theorist associated with scaffolding/zone of proximal development

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54

trust vs. mistrust

infant is uncertain about the world in which they live, and looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care

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55

autonomy vs. shame/doubt

the stage in which a child learns to be independent and make their own decisions in life (toddler)

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56

initiative vs. guilt

preschoolers learn to initiate plans/ carry out tasks or they feel guilt about their efforts to be independent

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57

competence vs. inferiority

child learns to be productive or becomes discouraged and feels inferior or incompetent

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58

identity vs. role confusion

stage is characterized by the adolescent question of “Who am I,”; teens are conflicted with values/ideas of who they should be and what they should think

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59

intimacy vs. isolation

young adults struggle to form close relationships/gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel isolated

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60

generativity vs. stagnation

middle-aged people discover a sense of contributing to the world or they may feel a lack of purpose

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61

integrity vs. despair

an older adult reflecting on their life, feeling either satisfaction or failure

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62

androgyny

people who possess high levels of both masculine and feminine traits

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