AP Biology Unit Five

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Genome

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83 Terms

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Genome

The genetic material of an organism or virus

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Chromosomes

structures made of one DNA molecule and proteins

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Somatic Cells

body cells

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Gametes

reproductive cells

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5

Chromatin

The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.

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Centromere

Point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.

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Sister Chromatids

Identical copies of a chromosome; full sets of these are created during the S subphase of interphase.

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Mitosis

division of the nucleus into two identical daughter nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

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Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells(immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II.)

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10

Meiosis

Cell division producing haploid gametes

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Mitotic (M) Phase

mitosis and cytokinesis

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Mitosis: Cell separates and divides chromosomes

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Cytokines: Cell divides cytoplasm and organelles.

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Interphase

Cell grows, replicates chromosomes, produces new organelles and cyclins.

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G1 phase

Cell grows, duplicates organelles, and gathers materials for DNA replication.

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S phase

DNA replication occurs

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G2 Phase

growth and final preparation for division, nucleus well defined.

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Mitotic Spindle

a structure made of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis

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Centrosome

A structure that functions as the microtubule organizing center and is important during cell division, has two centrioles.

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Kinetochore

A structure within the centromere containing the motor protein dynein. Moves the chromosomes apart during anaphase.

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Cell Cycle Control System

A cyclically operating set of molecules in the eukaryotic cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

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Cyclin

a protein that regulates the cell cycle

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23

CDK

(Cyclin-dependent kinases) A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin. Activity rises and falls depending on the concentration of the cyclin partner.

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MPF

(Maturation-promoting factor) a protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. The active form consists of cyclin and a protein kinase.

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growth factors

Regulatory proteins, ensure that cell division occurs properly

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Density Dependent Inhibition

crowded cells stop dividing

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27

Prophase

Chromosomes become visible, nuclear envelope dissolves, spindle forms

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Metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

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Anaphase

the chromatids (Mitosis) or homologous chromosomes/chromatids (Meiosis) separate and move toward opposite poles

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Telophase

The chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rodlike appearence. A new nuclear membrane forms around each region of chromosomes.

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Cytokinesis in plants

cell plate forms

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32

Cytokinesis in animals

Cleavage furrow forms

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Binary Fission

one cell divides to form two identical cells

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Karyotype

A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.

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homologous chromosomes

Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, though may have different alleles (versions) of those genes. Maternal/Paternal

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Sex Chromosomes

X and Y chromosomes.

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Autosomes

non-sex chromosomes

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Diploid

2 sets of chromosomes

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Haploid

having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

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Fertilization

Fusion of an egg and sperm cell

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Zygote

diploid fertilized egg

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Crossing Over

exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis

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Tetrad

structure containing 4 chromatids that forms when homologs pair during meiosis

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True Breeding

have identical alleles of a given gene/ homozygous

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Hybridization

The cross of two true-breeding parents. (BB x bb)

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P generation

Parental Generation

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F1 generation

offspring of the P generation

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F2 generation

offspring of the F1 generation

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Alleles

Different forms of a gene

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Punnet Square

A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

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Homozygous

having two identical alleles for a trait. BB or bb

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Heterozygous

having two different alleles for a trait. Bb

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Phenotype

physical characteristics of an organism (blue eyes)

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54

Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism (bb)

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Mendel's Law of Segregation

Alleles segregate from one another during the formation of gametes. (due to independent assortment)

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Monohybrid

A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits

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Dihybrid Cross

a cross between individuals that involves two pairs of contrasting traits

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law of Independent Assortment

non-linked genes separate into gametes independent of one another in meiosis

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Codominance

A condition in which both proteins produced by the alleles for a gene are fully expressed. (spots/stripes)

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Incomplete Dominance

Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another. The two proteins produced by the alleles mix. (blended colors)

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Multiple Alleles

A gene that has more than two alleles, like blood type (A,B,O)

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polygenetic inheritance

many genes are involved in specifying traits that exhibit continuous variation (ie. a normal/bell-shaped curve). Ex: Human height, skin color

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Pedigree

A diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.

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Cystic Fibrosis

autosomal recessive disorder resulting in thick mucous in the respiratory tract.

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Sickle Cell Disease

autosomal recessive disorder resulting in mutated hemoglobin molecules that polymerize and cause misshapen red blood cells.

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Huntington's disease

autosomal dominant disorder resulting in neurodegeneration, leading to dementia and death.

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Wild Type

An individual with the normal (most common in nature) phenotype. Ex: red eyes in fruit flies

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Mutant

An individual with a mutated form of an allele, not common in nature. Ex: white eyes in fruit flies

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Linked genes

Genes located adjacent on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses.

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X inactivation

one of two X chromosomes in a female is randomly inactivated and remains coiled as a Barr body

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Nondisjunction

Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.

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Aneuploid

Abnormal number of chromosomes.

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Monosomatic

Only has one copy of a chromosome

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Polyploid

condition in which an organism has extra SETS of chromosomes

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Deletion

removes a chromosomal segment

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Duplication

repeats a segment

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Inversion

reverses a segment

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Translocation

moves a segment from one chromosome to another

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Down Syndrome

(Trisomy 21) Occurs when an individual has 3 chromosomes of the 21st pair instead of 2; caused by NONDISJUNCTION

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Turner Syndrome

A chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing ( making the person XO instead of XX) or part of one X chromosome is deleted.

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Extranuclear Genes

genes found in organelles in the cytoplasm; inherited maternally (mitochondria in the egg)

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DNA methylation

The addition of methyl groups to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.

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locus

Location of a gene on a chromosome

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