Plant Bio Day 1

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Botany

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Tags and Description

I. Importance of plants II. Botany, the study of plants III. What is a plant? IV. Ancestors of land plants V. Land plants, the embryophyta

33 Terms

1

Botany

Evolution, Ecology, Molecular Genetics, Mathematical Modeling, Morphology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cell Bio, Systematics, Development

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2

Importance of Plants

  1. Energy: Food

  2. Energy: Fossil fuels

  3. Clothing

  4. Drugs, meds

  5. Ecosystem functioning

  6. Biodiversity

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3

Plants evolved from what

Algae

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4

Plants evolved from what/how

Algae, Eukaryote engulfment of cyanobacteria (plastid) Red/Green split

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5

Streptophytes

Fresh water (Charophytes) & Land plants (Embryophytes)

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6

Plants = all organisms within clade ___

Viridiplantae

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7

Primary Endosymbiosis

Prokaryote + Eukaryote = Eukaryote (plastid)

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8

Secondary endosymbiosis

Eukaryote (nonphotosynthetic) + Eukaryote (photosynthetic) = Eukaryote

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9

Plants 1500 MYA

  • Single cell & multicellular

  • Marine

  • Moist environments

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10

Plants 500 MYA

Colonization dryer environments

Cuticle Vascular tissue: roots & shoots Relationship w fungi Seeds & pollen

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11

Oxygen Revolution

Cyanobacteria changing O2 levels

  • Plants created (2400 MYA)

  • Plants move to land (700MYA)

    • Results in Oxygen spikes

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12

Features of plants

Starch, Chlorophyll b, Cellulose, Thylakoids in stacks

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13

Starch

  • Amylose (20%) chain

  • Amylopectin (80%) Branches

    • Sugar stored as starch

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14

Chlorophyll b

  • Chl a: all photosynthetic eukaryotes

  • Chl b: accessory pigment; passes energy to Chl a

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15

Cellulose

  • Polysaccharide: unbranched glucose residues

  • Most common polymer

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16

Thylakoids in stacks

  • Rather than as simple bands

  • Membranes inside chloroplast - contain chlorophyll

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17

Common ancestor of plants (not descended from)

Charophytes

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18

Features of charophytes & land plants

  1. Cell plate & phragmoplast (short microtubules)

  2. Plasmodesmata

  3. Rose-shaped cellulose synthesizing complexes

  4. Sporopollenin

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19

Plasmodesmata

Extensions of cell membrane thru pores in cell wall

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20

Sporopollenin

  • Durable polymer

  • Found in walls of plant spores & pollen

  • Chemically inert (stable, persists in environment)

  • Protects from desiccation, decay, etc.

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21

Move to land: Advantages

  • Air filters less sunlight than water

  • Air has more CO2

  • No predators/herbivores on land

  • More nutrient rich soil

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22

Plants in water:

Supported, retain water, Reproduction easier

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23

Plants on land

Not supportive, Lose water, Reproduction Harder

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24

Land Plant Adaptations

Turgor (+ pressure),

Cuticle; vascular tissue; roots; stomates

Egg & embryo retained on parent; sporopollenin; protected embryo; seed coat; pollen; flower; fruit

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25

Cuticle

Waxy covering

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26

Antheridium

Male sex organ (produces sperm)

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27

Archegonium

Female sex organ, produces egg

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28

All sexual reproduction

diploid → haploid

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29

Alternation of generations

mulitcellular diploid → Multicellular haploid

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30

The alternating generations are

Gametophyte (haploid 1n)

Sporophyte (diploid 2n)

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31

Origination of alternation of generations

  • Zygote delays meiosis & instead divides and grows.

  • Result: Multicellular diploid

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32

Meisis makes _# cells

4

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33

Green alga w/o alt of generations

Chlorophyta

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