Mr. Garner IB Philosophy: FiCHeRS Test #2: 6 Rules of Evidential Reasoning

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FiLCHeRS: This is a _____ device that helps us remember what kind of knowledge system/paradigm?

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IB Standard: Thinking Critically History Standard: The Significance of Ideas as Powerful Forces: Reason

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1

FiLCHeRS: This is a _____ device that helps us remember what kind of knowledge system/paradigm?

mnemonic

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2

Each consonant of FiLCHeRS stands for what principle respectively?

Falsifiability, Logic, Comprehensiveness, Honesty, Replicability, Sufficiency

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3

Explain how the system is used to test claims

If there is evidence then you start the process. Go through each of the principles and make sure that your claim fits each of them.

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4

What is most important rule of evidential reasoning?

Falsifiability

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5

Why is falsifiability the most fundamental rule of reasoning?

If there is no evidence then a claim cannot be tested. And if nothing conceivable could ever disprove a claim, it is meaningless.

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6

Why do we value this system over another?

One must value evidence, rational thought, and science.

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7

Three common core elements of the principle of falsifiability are:

Evidence matters most, anything that is true is falsifiable, your opinions and beliefs are irrelevant.

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8

How to think

-New Paradigm

-Objective

-FiLCHeRS

-Relatively new

-Science

-Doubting (cogito ergo sum)

-Emotions are trained to want to be rational

-Education

-Not for social reasons

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9

What to think

-Old Paradigm

-Subjective

-Religion/Politics (indoctrination)

-"I just know" intuition

-Belief

-Stories/Tradition

-Culture

-Social Stroking

-Often irrational/illogical

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10

What does the rule of logic state?

There must be a logical connection between the evidence and the claim. The evidence supporting the claim must be both valid and sound.

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11

Explain the differences between valid and sound

Valid is logical, but sound is both logical and true. An argument is valid if it is impossible for there to be a situation in which all of the premises are true but the conclusion is false. An argument is sound when the conclusion is true and the premises are true in real life, not just inferred.

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12

Create a syllogism that is invalid and unsound.

P1- All trees are blue

P2- All trees are red

C- All trees are purple

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13

Create a syllogism that is valid but unsound.

P1- All boys are tall

P2- Shanae is tall

C- Shanae is a boy

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14

Create a syllogism that is valid and sound.

P1- Female basketball players are typically tall

P2- Shanae is tall and a girl

C- Shanae is a female basketball player

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15

Why is logic the anatomy of thought, and who said that?

John Locke said that and if I'm thinking then what I am doing is going to be rational.

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16

What does the rule of Comprehensiveness state? Why is that important?

All evidence must be considered, especially any evidence that could prove you wrong. You have to take your opponents best shot.

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17

What does the rule of Honesty state? Why is that important?

No avoidance, self-deception, or rationalizations. We are being honest with ourselves and the evidence.

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18

What does the rule of Replicability state? Why is that important, making sure to avoid what?

Your data can be replicated by an objective participant. This avoids bias.

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19

What does the rule of Sufficiency state? Then include three extra rules to this principle.

The evidence offered in any claim must be adequate to establish truth.

1) The burden of proof for any claim lies on the claimant.

2) Extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence.

3) Evidence based on authority or testimony is inadequate for any claim.

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20

FiLCHeRs: This is a ________ device that helps us remember what kind of knowledge system/paradigm

mnemonic

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21

Each consonant stands for what principle respectively

Falsifiability

Logic

Comprehensiveness

Honesty

Replicability

Sufficiency

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22

Explain how this system is used to test claims

You cannot argue against something that does not have evidence. You have to start with falsifiability and make your way down the list

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23

This is the most fundamental and most important rule of evidential reasoning

Falsifiability

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24

Explain why? Also explain what one needs to value to use this system versus another.

If there is no evidence for or against it, it cannot be tested; therefore, it is not scientific. We need to value evidence, rational thought, and science.

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25

Three common core elements of the principle of falsifiability are:

Evidence matters most

Any true claims are falsifiable

Opinions and beliefs are irrelevant

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26

How to think:

FiLCHeRS

Science

Evidence

Doubt

Logic/Reason

Emotions trained to want

Education

Not for social reasons

Relatively new

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27

What to think:

Religion

Politics

Belief

Stories, tradition, culture

Often irrational/illogical

Emotion used to justify beliefs

Social connection

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28

What is the difference between valid and sound?

Valid=logical

Sound=logical and true

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29

Why is logic the anatomy of thought and who said that?

John Locke; if you are thinking, you are logical

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30

Rule of comprehensiveness; why is it important?

ALL evidence must be considered, especially evidence that can prove you wrong(always take your opponent's best shot and your own)

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31

Rule of honesty; why is it important?

No avoidance to the evidence

No self-deception

No rationalizing

"I must be honest with myself and what the evidence implies"

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32

Rule of replicability; why is it important, making sure to avoid what?

Your data must be viewed by another scientist to see if you set the same results to avoid coincidences

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33

Rule of sufficiency and state 3 extra rules associated with it.

The evidence offered in support of any claim must be adequate to establish truth.

1. The affirmative claimant has the burden of proof

2. Extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence

3. Testimonial and authority are always insufficient to state a truth claim

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34

Syllogism that is invalid and unsound:

All trees are blue

All trees are red

All trees are purple

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35

Syllogism that is valid but unsound:

If Superman actually exists, then at least one superhero exists

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36

Syllogism that is valid and sound:

Girl basketball players are usually tall

Shanae is a tall girl

Shanae is a basketball player

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